Friday, December 27, 2019
Operant conditioning (sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning) is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. For example, when a lab rat presses a blue button, he receives a food pellet as a reward, but when he presses the red button he receives a mild electric shock. As a result, he learns to press the blue button but avoid the red button. The History of Operant Conditioning. Operant conditioning was coined by behaviorist B.F. Skinner, which is why you may occasionally hear it referred to as Skinnerian conditioning. As a behaviorist, Skinner believed that it was not really necessary to look at internal thoughts and motivations in order to explain behavior. Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior. Through the first part of the 20th-century, behaviorism had become a major force within psychology. The ideas of John B. Watson dominated this school of thought early on. Watson focused on the principles of classical conditioning, once famously suggesting that he could take any person regardless of their background and train them to be anything he chose. Where the early behaviorists had focused their interests on associative learning, Skinner was more interested in how the consequences of people s actions influenced their behavior. Skinner used the term operant to refer t oShow MoreRelatedThe Theory Of Operant Conditioning869 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthree and a half-year old Gertrude to whom I will apply the theory of operant conditioning to get her to meet a scheduled bed time. Her Mother is facing a steep learning curve with respect to; second language, new cultural, a newborn with a serious disease and isolated from her family (UK and Congo). It is of the utmost importance that we have GertrudeÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour changed to ease the transition to Canada. Discussion Operant conditioning is happening in our everyday lives, it can be found at workRead MoreThe Theory Of Operant Conditioning1489 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOperant Conditioning Operant conditioning is a form of learning where people or animals change their behavior because of the reinforcement given after a desired response. A good example of operant conditioning is, a teacher giving five percent of the marks to students, who have good attendance. The theory is useful in teaching programmed instructions, where the information is given in small bits to reinforce the responses (Litow Pumroy, 1975). Additionally, the theory can help in shaping studentsÃ¢â¬â¢Read MoreTheory of Operant Conditioning933 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTheory of Operant Conditioning Instrumental conditioning, otherwise known as operant conditioning is a theory that B.F Skinner came up with and is defined as a learning process by which the consequence of an operant response affects the likelihood of the response recurring in the future. Basically, operant conditioning is a stimulus response prototype that when reinforced, conditions individuals or organisms response to a desired behavior (Huitt, W., Hummel, J., 1997) Our behaviors are shapedRead MoreThe Theory of Operant Conditioning1136 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages The Theory of Operant Conditioning PSY390 October 6, 2014 Introduction The study of human behavior by psychologists such as B.F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike, Ivan Pavlov, and Watson is fascinating. These five psychologists each have different theories on human behavior. There are similarities and differences in each of the theories. Ivan PavlovÃ¢â¬â¢s classical conditioning theory, studied animals and formed the basis for behavioral psychology (Cherry, 2013). Edward ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of connectionismRead MoreThe Theory Of Operant Conditioning989 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOperant Conditioning: Procrastination The principals of operant conditioning, teaches how having certain coping techniques can reward certain undesirable behaviors. Conditioning human behavior has been studied for many years, Psychologists Edward Thorndike and B.F. Skinner, have dedicated majority of their lives to the study. ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s theory Law of effect. Thorndike suggest that certain stimuli and response become connected or dissociated from each other. His experiment worked by placing a catRead MoreThe Theory Of Operant Conditioning1792 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIn the textbook operant conditioning can be defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the control of behavior through manipulation of rewards and punishments in the environment, particularly the laboratory environmentÃ¢â¬ (Cervone Pervin, 2013). B.F. skinner who created the operant conditioning procedure believed that all humans are controlled by the environments that they experience and that by changing the environment it is possible to reinforce a behavior that benefits e veryone (Cervone Pervin, 2013). Skinner also believedRead MoreThe Theory Of Operant Conditioning1934 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesat the theory of Operant Conditioning and all the many aspects that go along with it. This theory of Operant Conditioning by B. F. Skinner is a great guideline that can be used in the classroom. Operant Conditioning is definitely a theory that can change the way a classroom is ran. Throughout this paper we will see what behaviorism is and what operant conditioning is as a whole, along with the educational implications of this theory. Biographical Background of (Theorist) The theory of Operant ConditioningRead MoreThe Theory Of Operant Conditioning Theory Essay746 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagescame up with the idea of what is known as operant conditioning (Rholetter, 2013). Operant conditioning is one of two theories in learning that illustrates behaviorism (Kretchmar, 2015). It is according to Rholetter (2013), Ã¢â¬Å"the idea that behavior is the learned result of consequencesÃ¢â¬ . Skinner believed that learning during operant conditioning is done based upon the outcome of a given situation (Lefrancois, 2012, p. 91). His operant conditioning theory is constructed on reinforcements consistingRead MoreBehaviorism And The Operant Conditioning Theory Essay1415 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesalso. Learning theories are conceptualized frameworks which describe how individuals absorb, process and retain information. Behaviorists such as John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, Edward L. Thorndike, Ivan Pavlov and Edwin R. Guthrie believed that all learners were passive in natu re and only responded to external stimuli. Behaviorism, as explored by the before mentioned, is a biological basis of learning and focuses exclusively on observable behaviors. This includes ThorndikeÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of connectionismRead MoreThe Theory Of Behaviorism And Operant Conditioning895 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages B.F Skinner Renowned American psychologist B.F. Skinner, well known for his theory on behaviorism and operant conditioning. He was the most influential 20th - century psychologist. His works includes Ã¢â¬Å"The Behavior of OrganismsÃ¢â¬ (1938) which was about the results in his experiment with operant conditioning, and a novel based on his theories Ã¢â¬Å"WaldenÃ¢â¬ (1948). He was not only a psychologist he was a behaviorist, teacher, author, inventor, and a social philosopher as well. Born as Burrhus Frederic
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Credibility in Research Writing Introduction There are different styles of scholarly writing and each of the writing has certain format that students will have to follow for their field of study. Research paper is one of the writing that students will encounter in their major classes. In my past Child Development class, especially CHDV 123 writing research paper was required in the class. After writing the literature review about observation and how the observer have to be sure that the information he or she present have to be valid, it made me think about credibility in research writing which help me develop my research question. Furthermore, with the research paper, we as students have to make sure that our research has credibility or the research is not valid. Therefore, credibility is crucial in this field. However, as a student who major in Child Development, we focus more on qualitative research which requires us to make sure that there is credibility in our paper. By having credibility in our paper, it allows us to bui ld trustworthiness in our research and eliminating the bias in our research. According to Kopala, she states that, Ã¢â¬Å"Trustworthiness also encompasses efforts to reduce or at the very least to make explicit sources of bias by the researcher.Ã¢â¬ (30) In this research report, my research question was wondering the importance of having credibility in research writing for Child Development major?Ã¢â¬ In this research, I will be using two different methods toShow MoreRelatedThe Importance Of Academic Writing1024 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdocuments are used and published widely for everyone, writing has become an essential way of communicating. Although, the effectiveness of academic writing is a discussion among scholars its relevance should not be neglected. For some educators, academic writing does not add practicality to the students future career communication; for others, college-level writing is an essential learning tool. Moreover, students are struggled in understand acade mic writing real usefulness and try to avoid this disciplineRead MoreProgram And Academic Success Center844 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesUniversity Writing Center (UWC) and Academic Success Center (ASC) are two of the university facilities that help students enrich their academic experience. While UWC assists students in improving their written and oral communication skills through one to one consulting sessions, online resources, and workshops, ASC works to enhance studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ intellectual performance through academic coaching, supplemental instruction, drop-in tutoring sessions, and peer mentoring. Both of the organizations take aRead MoreThe Importance Of Academic Writing1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWriting has become an essential way of communication in a technological world in which our voice has been transformed into written words, through text messages, e-mails, and documents widely used and published by everyone. By being a critical issue, students are compelled to learn College -level writing in college; although, the effectiveness of Academic Writing is a discussion among scholars its relevance should not be neglected. For some educators, academic writing does not add practicality to theRead MoreWriting Paper837 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesI would like to research the lack of concern on the importance of physical education in middle school/high school students. My research will prove that physical activity in schools help activate the brain, improve on-task behavior during academic instruction time. I was amazed to learn of the correlation between regular physical movement and brain development in young children. What programs exist that would aid in my bringing movement - and by extension, greater brain development - to my studentsRead MoreComparative Outcomes Of Two Instructional Models For Students With Learning Disabilities1488 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesStudents with Learning Disabilities: Inclusion with Co-Teaching and Solo-Taught Special Education. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 251-258. Retrieved November 22, 2014. Summary In the following study researchers compared two instructional approaches; co-teaching inclusion and solo-taught special education for students with learning disabilities in regard to their overall academic achievement. Participants of the study included twelve inclusive/co-teaching classrooms, which were comparedRead MoreCritical And Sophisticated Type Of Academic Writing And Can Easily Be Constructed By Breaking Down Its Basic Structure933 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Essays are a comprehensive and sophisticated type of academic writing and can easily be constructed by breaking down its basic structure. A quality essay is one that presents and supports an argument on a particular topic by applying well-constructed research. Writing an academic essay can be a complicated task, but by paying attention to key elements such as structure, content and presentation, the essay will be easy to develop. However incorrect use of these basic steps can lead the paper to lackRead MoreThe Age Of The Female Students1281 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesprevious knowledge. Additionally, the students average scores in the previous year have been taken from the school manager. Also, the academic self regulation scale has been administrated. Therefore, the variables (age, intelligence, previous knowledge, total average in English courses of the students during the academic year 2014-2015 and the pre test of the academic self regulation have been controlled for both groups as s hown in Table 3. (3): Means , Variance and T -Value of the Five VariablesRead MoreThe University Writing Center And The Academic Success Center941 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe University Writing Center (UWC) and the Academic Success Center (ASC) are two of the university initiatives that help students enrich their academic experience. While UWC assists students in improving their written and oral communication skills through one to one consulting sessions, online resources, and workshops, ASC works to enhance studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ intellectual performance through academic coaching, supplemental instruction, drop-in tutoring sessions, and peer mentoring. Both of the organizationsRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Turbocharger Design Effect On Gasoline Engine Performance 1255 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthere lies a problem. Rather, it is the ability of the researchers and academics to appropriately communicate their findings to others that is troublesome. Rhetorical analyses are critical in the understating and sharing of new scientific discoveries in the academic world. The authors must be clear and focused in their writing if their papers and articles are to be rhetorically effective. Ways to accomplish this include writing in the IMRAD format, being mindful of the intended audience, assuringRead MoreWhat Is Effective Instruction1417 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesskills, is an effective teacher. According to Sanders (1996), research shows that students who are assigned with the most effective teachers in three years score as many 50 percentile points higher on achievement compared to students who are assigned to the least effective teachers (Sanders amp; Rivers, 1996). During years research has documented many of the effective practices for students that struggle in academic skills; reading, writing, and math. In few words all these practices are called Effective
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Adam Smith is undoubtedly one of the most celebrated scholars of all time since his revolutionary theories on trade changed the way people engaged in commerce and ultimately the role of government in regulating trade within and without. Adam Smith was infuriated by the mercantile policies that sought to promote the accumulation of gold and silver and which emphasized strict government control on trade and the flow of resources and labor. In addition he did not view agriculture as the only means for society to satisfy its means and in his view such singular thoughts limited growth of all sectors. Smith believed in a system of natural liberty whose end he believed would be effective trade and significant expansion of trade through growth of sectors. He believed that human beings should be allowed to pursue their individual interest since in his own opinion this personal interest always ends up benefiting the whole of society. We will write a custom essay sample on Adam Smith or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This system also has the capacity to correct imbalances that might result out of free trade. This is because a reduction in the supply of a commodity would result into increased demand for that commodity resulting into an increased cost of the commodity leading to increased production of the same in order to reap the increased profit. This would in turn lead to an increase in competition among the suppliers lowering the price of the commodity. This competition among traders prevents monopolistic behavior that would lead to exploitation of consumers. Smith explained that for great productivity to be achieved, self interest would lead to division of labor giving rise to specialization to particular tasks. This in turn leads to great skill in the specialized tasks, saving of important time and much needed innovations. Smith felt that wealth of nations was influenced by the amount of trade that existed between the inhabitants of towns and those in farms. He saw it as being vital for such trade to exist to provide market for both their commodities. On those who felt that lack of government interference might lead some to other countries where labor is cheaper, he felt that they would be stopped from doing so due to their nationalistic feelings and this will be ultimately for the good of the countries. Work Cited Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, vol. 39. Chicago, Ill.: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 195 Adam Smith free essay sample Adams Smith was a famous professor of moral psychology who set out simple principles designed the free the self-interest of the average working man. Adam Smith is famous for his Ã¢â¬Å"The Wealth of NationsÃ¢â¬ , because it is one of the contemporary economic thoughts.Ã Adam Smith was born in a small village situated in Scotland. He was raised by a widowed mother until entering the University of Glasgow. He started studying at the University at the age of fourteen and such practice was usual in those times. Ten he attended Balliol College at Oxford. Smith graduated with proper knowledge in European literature and returned home. After delivering lectures, he became a chair of logic and moral philosophy at the University of Glasgow.In 1764 Adam Smith decided to leave academia and to each young duke of Buccleuch. Together they had been traveling for two years throughout Switzerland and France. It was an experience that Ã¢â¬Å"brought Smith into contact with contemporaries Voltaire, Francois Quesnay, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Jacques TurgotÃ¢â¬ . We will write a custom essay sample on Adam Smith or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Serving duke, Smith earned life pension and after retiring he wrote Ã¢â¬Å"The Wealth of NationÃ¢â¬ being published firstly in 177. American Declaration of Independence was also signed this year. Later smith was appointed commissioner of customs, though that position was uncomfortable for him. It is known that Adam Smith had never been married. He died in 1790, July 19.SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s writings and ideas are likely to be the guidelines of bedrock of the American economic success. Smith provided information how to survive in capitalist country and to remain humane. His ideas on economy and well-being are important for understanding the growing discomfort being experienced by American society.Ã SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas were integral to the vision of the Founding Fathers. Therefore, his ideas found practical application in American nation. American dream nowadays is significantly magnified by globalization processes, technology developments, though social good is paid less attention.Actually, Adam Smith is respected for his attempts to explain the rational self-interest in terms of free-market economy ad how self-interest leads to economic development and well-being. Therefore, Smith ideas may seem as ruthless individualism concentrated on ethics and charity. It is admitted that SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s theory is based mostly on biology of human behavior. Factually, Adam Smith was the first to rationalize the human instincts and desires within the economic framework. Whybrow cites Smith arguing that contemporary society is driven by self-love and self-interest to achieve the desired outcomes. Most humans are hard-working and ingenious willing to achieve great social benefits. Smith asserts that it is the instinct of self-preservation. The essential complement is the instinctual curiosity meaning the desire to explore new places. Success of market society depends on individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ democracies and liberties as well as the freedom of expression. Adams summarized the keys to social improvements suggesting they were curiosity, self-interest, self-preservation, material gains and expressed ambitions.Adam Smith wrote: Ã¢â¬Å"How selfish soever man may be supposed, there are evidently some principles in his nature which interest him in the fortune of others and render their happiness necessary to him though he derives nothing from it except the pleasure of seeing itÃ¢â¬ . As it is mentioned above, Smith was rather interested in explanation of self-interest. Therefore, he strongly objected to idea that self-interest or self-love was Ã¢â¬Å"was a principle which could never be virtuous in any degreeÃ¢â¬ .Smith though that life of humans would be tough and difficult if humansÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"affections, which, by the very nature of our being, ought frequently to influence our conduct, could upon no occasion appear virtuous, or deserve esteem and commendation from anybodyÃ¢â¬ . He considered the notions of sympathy and self-interest ethical and stated they complemented each other. He explained that Ã¢â¬Å"man has almost constant occasion for the help of his brethren, and it is in vain for him to expect it from their benevolence onlyÃ¢â¬ . Therefore, charity alone was unable to improve the quality of living. Further, self-interest could remedy and essentially improve living: Ã¢â¬Å"It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we can expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest Ã¢â¬ .Smith argued that a person earning money would benefit not only himself, but also benefit society as earning income in competitive market suggested that he produced something valuable for to others. Smith claimed that it was necessary to direct industry in such a way that it would produce the greatest values to be able to promote economic well-being. Ã¢â¬Å"The Wealth of the Nations: reveals the ideas of causes and consequences of American prosperity. According to Smith, the main reason of prosperity is globalization and division of labor. SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s famous example of prosperity is based on pins.The central idea of Smith was to find out how labor and other resources should be applied the best to give individual am opportunity to benefit. Smith argued that individual would invest any resource such as land or labor in order to receive the highest return on it. Therefore, usage of resources should yield an equal rate of return. Otherwise, re-allocation should take place. This idea is central proposition to economic development. Using equality of returns, Smith tried to explain the difference in wage rates. Smith claimed that wage rates would be higher for traders, because they had to learn much and they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be motivated in getting that job if they werenÃ¢â¬â¢t compensated by high wages. Actually, human capital is based on this concept.Also wage rates should be higher for people whose jobs are associated with dirtiness and danger Ã¢â¬â butchering, coal mining, hangman, etc. they perform odious job and, thus, should be compensated higher. Ã Briefly speaking, differences in wages rates should be based on differences in work peculiarities. SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s theory , for example, in SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s fourth book of Ã¢â¬Å"The Wealth of NationsÃ¢â¬ he Ã¢â¬Å"tells Great Britain that her American colonies are not worth the cost of keepingÃ¢â¬ . He explained that British imperialism suggested excessively high costs.It is known that Adam Smith was against mercantilism stating that the practice of artificial maintenance of trade surplus wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t improve nationsÃ¢â¬â¢ well-being and would erroneous effort. Smith assumed that the main advantage of trade was that it provided new markets for surplus of goods and services at less cost from abroad. In such a way he launched succession of free trade economists who worked out the concept of comparative advantage (David Ricardo and John Stuart Mill). Adam Smith also realized the role of government in economic performance of the country. He claimed that the government had to enforce grant patents and contracts in order to stimulate emergence of new ides and inventions. Smith also admitted that government should pay attention to public roads and bridges, because it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be worthwhile for individuals to provide.It is interesting to note that Smith in contrast to other believers, Smith promoted the idea of retaliatory tariffs. He thought it would ensure certain benefits for the country: Ã¢â¬Å"The recovery of a great foreign market will generally more than compensate the transitory inconvenience of paying dearer during a short time for some sorts of goodsÃ¢â¬ . Due to the fact that his economic ideas lasted longer than that of other economistsÃ¢â¬â¢, Smith is considered alpha and omega of economic and political science. His study was one of the most systematic and comprehensive and his economic ideas are the basis of classical economic theory.BibliographyHenderson, David. (2002). Biography of Adam Smith. Retrieved February 24, 2007, from http://www.econlib.org/Library/Enc/bios/Smith.htmlLandry, Peter. (1997). Adam Smith. Retrieved February 24, 2007, from http://www.blupete.com/Literature/Biographies/Philosophy/Smith.htmMuller, Jerry. (1995). Adam Smith in his Time and Ours: Designing the Descent Society. USA: Princeton University Press.Muller, Jerry. (2002). The Mind and the Market: Capitalism in Western Thought. USA: Anchor Books.Teichgraeber, Richard. (1986). Ã Free Trade and Moral Philosophy: Rethinking the Sources of Adam SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s Wealth of Nations. USA: Anchor Books.Whybrow, Peter. (2006). Adam SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s American Dream: of Desire and Debt. New York: The City University of New York.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Last of the Mohicans: Differents Between the Book and Movie The book Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper was very different from the movie Last of the Mohicans in terms of the storyline. However, I feel that the producer and director of this movie did a good job of preserving Cooper's original vision of the classic American man surviving in the wilderness, while possibly presenting it better than the book originally did and in a more believable fashion to a late twentieth century reader. The makers of the movie Last of the Mohicans preserved Cooper's central ideas and themes very well, the most important of which is the question, what makes a man? Very few books that I have read contain such a clear sense of what a man should be as Last of the Mohicans. Cooper portrays the hero, Hawkeye, as brave, independent, and skillful in the ways of the woods. He is a tracker, he can hit a target with a bullet from any distance, he can fight the evil Iroquois Indians without batting so much as an eyelash. The makers of the movie take great pains to preserve these facets of Hawkeye, but then go beyond what Cooper originally laid down as the basis for his hero's character. In the book, Hawkeye displays very little feeling and the reader has very little empathy with him, even though he is the hero. In the movie, however, there is a great romance between Hawkeye and Cora that does not exist in the book. This romance adds a more human side to Hawkeye's character; it show s his caring side beyond all the hero-woodsman qualities--in other words, the non-Rambo, late twentieth century version of a hero. Every hero should have a woman at his side, and the makers of the movie, realizing this, transfer Cora from Uncas' side to Hawkeye's. This I think was a wise choice because it gave the viewer more things in common with the hero and thus made Hawkeye a more human hero and therefore more comprehensible to the late twentieth century viewer. One thing the makers of the movie attempted to keep was the vision portrayed in the book of sweeping landscapes, gigantic trees, dark forests, crashing waterfalls, and other impressive features of nature. This again was a wise choice, seeing as how part of Cooper's vision was the goodness and power of nature. However, once again I think the film presented this facet better than the book did, although this time it was not due to a feature Cooper left out but instead was simply due to the fact that film presents such features in a more vivid, more appealing way than pages of descriptive passage. (This again may be the bias of a late twentieth century viewer/reader, as we are used to having our images presented in a graphic, immediate way, rather than allowing our imaginations to conjure up pictures from the written word.) One thing the makers of the movie left out that was originally in the book was the character of David Gamut, the psalmist. Of all the characters in the book I felt his was best developed by Cooper; almost all of the others were cardboard characters with no depth. Gamut, however, is at the beginning portrayed as anything but a hero He is gawky, doesn't believe in killing other men (even Indians), and is something of what we would today call a nerd. However, he goes through many "trials by fire" and in the end is shaped into Cooper's version of the American man. David Gamut amused me as the story went along and his presence certainly lightened things up compared to the constant sense of foreboding that pervades the book. However, the movie makers sadly left out his character altogether. Though David Gamut was not an important part of Cooper's vision, he still played a part in it. He developed throughout the book from a wimpy coward to one who took up arms in the final battle, placing his life in God's hands and throwing caution to the wind. I cannot see a reason for removing his character other than the producers possibly wishing to remove all semblance of comedy from the movie and thus make it a very serious film. I think this is a stupid reason, because his character added much more to the story than a few jokes, and had I been the director I would have included his character, perhaps even embellished it in the same manner as
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Employees of HATI may abuse their privileges. This leads to the emergence of the first vulnerability for this organization that occur in cases where these employees perform other functions, which are beyond their job responsibilities. On the same note, HATI employees may share classified information for the organization with third parties.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Security Policies in HATI specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Moreover, HATI organization may face platform vulnerabilities for its laptops. Such situation leads to denial of services, corruption of data, or even unauthorized access to data (Cybercrime, 2012). An example of this is the Ã¢â¬Å"Blaster WormÃ¢â¬ , which may deny the organization services in case the laptops have Windows 2000 as their operating system. Database communication protocols are also vulnerabilities for HATI Company. Figure 1: Vulnerabilities to an Organization SQL injectio n attack is one threat, which HATI organization may experience while performing its functions. SQL injection creates an opportunity for the attackers to access the whole database for an organization. HATI may also have a weak audit trail, which indicates that the organization may have higher risks in several levels, which include detection and recovery, deterrence, and regulatory risk. Furthermore, HATI may have a Denial of Service (DOS) attack, which may be created by several vulnerabilities. DOS techniques include network flooding and corruption of data among others (NIST, 2007). Finally, weak authentication for the database, as well as exposure of the back-up data for the database is a threat, which HATI organization may face while conducting its financial transactions. Personal opinion on the risks, which HATI faces, is that denial of service; weak authentication of database, privilege abuse, and weak audit trail of all data processes are the significant risks to the organizatio n. If the organization cannot control these risks it will eventually collapse due to the fact that the organization will incur losses, be attacked, and lose confidential data. Figure 1 shows how the organization may be at a risk because of a threat.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More HATI has an opportunity of using query-level access control (QLAC) as a measure of eliminating the vulnerabilities of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ privileges abuse. QLAC illustrates a mechanism, which has the power to restrict privileges of the database to the minimum operations of the SQL, as well as data. This mechanism has the ability of issuing an alert in case an employee is engaged in malicious activities. However, this mechanism needs to use SecureSphereÃ¢â¬â¢s Dynamic Profiling Technology, which enables the creation of various algorithms that contribute to the generation of query-level usage profile s for the organization employees (Perrin, 2009). In addition, HATI should develop a database access control which limits unspecified access to the database. HATI may also adopt intrusion prevention systems (IPS), which aid in the inspection of database traffic of any potential vulnerability. IPS does this by either blocking access to a procedure that is vulnerable, or procedures, which may result in an attack to the organization (Pfleeger, 2003). The functionality of IPS should be improved by the incorporation of query access control indicators, which determine whether requests correspond to normal behavior of users or not. An IPS has the ability of minimizing attacks as the one indicated in figure 2. Platform attacks for HATI can only be prevented by the adoption of intrusion prevention systems and having regular software updates. This will ensure that vulnerabilities, which the organization may experience over time, are minimized effectively. SQL injection, which may have tremendo us negative impacts on the processes and functions of HATI Company should be combated by combining three techniques, which are event correlation, query-level access control, and intrusion prevention (IPS). Weak authentication and audit of the database activities should be addressed by having a strong authentication and high performance of the auditing platform (Learning Space, 2012). On the same note, Denial of Service (DOS) should be combated by protection of database, applications, and networks. Finally, attack of database communication protocol should be prevented by adaptation of protocol validation measures. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Security Policies in HATI specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Figure 2: Impact of an attack in an organization Characteristics of a policy statement A policy statement should be clear and easy to understand and should ensure that it delivers its message effectively. Further , the quality for such a statement should be measurable for employees to implement its concept effectively (Shulman, 2006). Moreover, a policy statement should be realistic and useful to an organization. Finally, the objectives of the policy statement should be aligned with the goals of the organization. Policy Statement Purpose: To provide adequate information on the necessity of protecting client and corporate data. Scope: This policy is applicable to all employees of HATI Company involved in the process of handling both client and corporate data. Henry Advanced Technology, Inc. (HATI) recognizes that client and corporate data are vulnerable to various threats. Handling data is a responsibility of each employee in the company since such data may lose its value or worth in case it is tampered with. Therefore, all members must depict higher levels of professionalism and responsibility while handling data for the organization. It is the policy for this company to: Ensure that the sa fety level of both client and corporate data is high. Data is not rendered unusable because of compromising the same. All employees stick to job responsibilities, which they are allocated and handle data at higher confidential levels. Employees do not engage in malicious acts of altering data, which is stored in their laptops. Employees will be held liable for any malicious acts detected while handling either client, or corporate data. Reference List Cybercrime. (2012). Financial Organizations Must Improve Data Security Practices. Web.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Learning Space. (2012). Threats and Vulnerabilities.Ã Web. NIST. (2007). National Vulnerability Database (NVD).Ã Web. Perrin, C. (2009). Understanding Risk, Threat, and Vulnerability.Ã Web. Pfleeger, C. (2003). Security in Computing (3rd Ed). United States of America: Pearson Education, Inc. Shulman, A. (2006). Top Ten Database Security Threats.Ã Web. This essay on Security Policies in HATI was written and submitted by user Annabella K. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Essay Sample on Terrorism Threats to Security Example essay on Terrorism: The interrelated law and order issues of Organised Transnational Crime (OTC), the illicit drug trade and terrorism, are those which are most threatening to international security today. Law and order issues have also been called, low-intensity conflict, problems of global governability and grey area phenomenon and can be seen as threats to security arising from non-state actors and non-governmental processes. Increasingly since the end of the cold war, threats to national security are coming from these grey area phenomena and due to the process of globalisation, threats to national security can threaten international security. This essay will examine how OTC, terrorism and international drug trafficking are affecting all aspects of human security and it will be seen that it is increasingly difficult to clearly distinguish the difference between these issues. It will be shown that these particular GAP are the most threatening due to; the range of aspects of security they threaten, the convergence of and partnership between OTC and terrorism, the growing lethality of terrorism and the disparity of capabilities and effectiveness between these groups and the law enforcement and security bodies attempting to combat them. The new global economy has presented new opportunities for criminal organisations. These organisations have: increasingly engaged in cross-border activity, both in response to market activities and as a means of decreasing their vulnerability to law enforcement efforts. As a result, organisations and networks have increased in size and power and many have developed interests beyond their country of origin. Criminal organisations have developed to resemble transnational corporations which treat national borders as nothing more than minor inconveniences to their criminal enterprises. (McFarlane 1996, p.456) The most threatening of activities undertaken by OTC and increasingly by terrorists is the trafficking of illegal narcotics. The drug trade has the ability to penetrate all aspects of society and can threaten the social, political and economic security of nations, regions and the global community. Through corruption of state employees, transnational crime syndicates have the ability to undermine legitimate political processes. Dupont (1999, p.436) suggests that the growth in the coercive power of organised crime, if unchecked, has international security implications because large-scale criminal enterprise can subvert the norms and institutions that underpin the global order and the society of states. He offers Burma as the prime example of a threat to sovereignty from the anti-state imperatives of criminals trafficking in heroin and [synthetic drugs]. (p.454) Chalk (2001, p.188) offers an example closer to home however. He cites the findings of the 1996-97 Royal Commission into the New South Wales Police Service. The findings of the report suggest their has been a close relationship between police officers and drug traffickers for some time and Chalk goes on to explain that such corruption not only undermines the integrity and credibility of Australian social and political institutions, it also exposes the country to international influences over which it has little, if any, control. Thus OTC can be seen to pose a direct threat to sovereignty. In the post Cold War era, concerns have increasingly focused on security aspects other than the traditional concerns of political, military and sovereign integrity. The economic and social security of nations and its populations is becoming more important to security analysts and policy makers. The social impact of the drug trade may not necessarily be the most threatening to security but is probably the impact most felt by the majority of citizens within a society. These threats and impacts include; problems with addiction and the related problem of the spread of infectious diseases particularly HIV/AIDS and an increase in crime associated to the drug trade brought about by addicts trying to finance their habit and by traffickers trying to obtain larger shares of a market. McFarlane (1996, p.459) points to another interesting threat which may emerge from an increase in crime: Furthermore, with increasing crime a free press and civil rights tend to be ignored both by the criminals and by the hard-pressed law enforcement agencies. The potential for the drug trade to affect economic security is also large and is more and more becoming the focus of anti-crime initiatives. The importance of programmes and clinics to help those with an addiction problem or associated health or medical problem diverts funds from other areas of the economy. Finance of resources to combat OTC and the drug trade also diverts money from other sectors of the economy. Destabilisation of a financial system can also occur through the process of money laundering (Chalk: 2001 p181). The threat of terrorism also looms large on the international stage, especially since the events of Sept 11 2001 in New York and in Bali on Oct 12 2002. Due to these events, Militant Islamic terrorism is the focus of much of the international effort against terrorism and is seen as an immediate threat to international security. The difference between terrorists and OTC syndicates is largely determined by their motives and objectives. While OTC will usually focus on the acquisition of profits and power, militant Islamic terrors purpose is commonly identified as the eradication of infidel. In this, they are becoming much more proficient. One of the reasons for this proficiency is the availability and affordability of weapons and supporting technology left over from old Cold War conflicts (Chalk 1999, p.161; Marenko n.d). Campbell (1997, p. 28, cited in Chalk 1999, p.163) suggests that terrorism Ã ¡has demonstrated an increasing trend towards growing lethality and extreme violence sugg esting a potential escalation spiral that could culminate in the indiscriminate use of weapons of mass destruction. As separate law and order issues, Organised Transnational Crime and non-profit motivated terrorism constitute immediate threats to international security. There is however, an escalating trend towards cooperation and indeed a convergence between these two groups, so much so that is becoming more difficult to distinguish between them. Since the end of the Cold War, state sponsored and subsidised terrorism has declined and terrorist organisations have turned to criminal like activities to fund operations (Jamieson 2001, p.379). The most common and threatening of these activities is drug trafficking which offers dividends that can often lead revolutionary groups to neglect their ideals. Hezbollah operates a narcotics export operation out of the Bekaa Valley in the Middle East, has ties with the insurgent Kurdistan Workers Party and with Russian organised crime and is a good example of a group turning to crime to fund their terror operations. Abu Sayyaf in the Philippines and the Revolut ionary Armed Forces of Columbia (FARC) are better examples of ideologically driven groups that that have transformed into criminal enterprises (Cillufo 2000). On the other hand, organised crime groups are increasing their use of terror tactics. In 1993 for example, the Sicilian Mafia carried out a series of car bomb attacks near historic sites on the Italian mainland with the aim of intimidating public opinion and Parliament into abrogating recently passed anti-mafia legislation (Jamieson 2001, p.379). The cooperation between and convergence of OTC and terrorism naturally poses a larger threat to international security than if they operated alone. It is implied by the Report on the 11th Meeting of the CSCSP Working Group on Transnational Crime (2002) that John McFarlane suggests that the attacks on Sept 11 2001 in New York could not have been perpetrated without criminal means and connections being used to acquire funds and identity papers. The direct threats of OTC, the Drug trade and terrorism have been recognised but a related threat must also be addressed. This threat comes from a disparity between the capabilities of OTC and terrorist groups and the ability of governments to stop their activities. This is exacerbated by the effects of globalisation. Naim (2003) best describes this situation Never fettered by the niceties of sovereignty, they [OTCs and terrorists] are now increasingly free of geographic constraints. Moreover, globalisation has not only expanded illegal markets and boosted the size and the resources of criminal networks, it has also imposed more burdens on governments: Tighter public budgets, decentralisation, privatisation, deregulation and a more open environment for national trade and investment all make the task of fighting global criminal more difficult. Governments are made up of cumbersome bureaucracies that generally cooperate with difficulty, but drug traffickers, arms dealers, alien smugglers, counterfeiters and money launderers have refined networking to a high science, entering into complex and improbable strategic alliances that span cultures and continents. It is clear from this that governments need to redefine notions of sovereignty in order to foster more international cooperation within the framework of strengthened international institutions. Organised Transnational Crime activities, particularly narcotics trafficking, are a serious threat to international security. They can destabilise a nation socially, politically and economically, which in turn can lead to destabilisation in the international community. The increasing occurrence and lethality of militant Islamic terrorism also creates concern for international stability. The most significant threat however, comes from a convergence of OTC and terrorism and the international communitys inability to react effectively to this increasing phenomena. The new global economy has presented new opportunities for criminal organisations. These organisations have: increasingly engaged in cross-border activity, both in response to market activities and as a means of decreasing their vulnerability to law enforcement efforts. As a result, organisations and networks have increased in size and power and many have developed interests beyond their country of origin. Criminal organisations have developed to resemble transnational corporations which treat national borders as nothing more than minor inconveniences to their criminal enterprises. (McFarlane 1996, p.456) The most threatening of activities undertaken by OTC and increasingly by terrorists is the trafficking of illegal narcotics. The drug trade has the ability to penetrate all aspects of society and can threaten the social, political and economic security of nations, regions and the global community. Through corruption of state employees, transnational crime syndicates have the ability to undermine legitimate political processes. Dupont (1999, p.436) suggests that the growth in the coercive power of organised crime, if unchecked, has international security implications because large-scale criminal enterprise can subvert the norms and institutions that underpin the global order and the society of states. He offers Burma as the prime example of a threat to sovereignty from the anti-state imperatives of criminals trafficking in heroin and [synthetic drugs]. (p.454) Chalk (2001, p.188) offers an example closer to home however. He cites the findings of the 1996-97 Royal Commission into the New South Wales Police Service. The findings of the report suggest their has been a close relationship between police officers and drug traffickers for some time and Chalk goes on to explain that such corruption not only undermines the integrity and credibility of Australian social and political institutions, it also exposes the country to international influences over which it has little, if any, control. Thus OTC can be seen to pose a direct threat to sovereignty. In the post Cold War era, concerns have increasingly focused on security aspects other than the traditional concerns of political, military and sovereign integrity. The economic and social security of nations and its populations is becoming more important to security analysts and policy makers. The social impact of the drug trade may not necessarily be the most threatening to security but is probably the impact most felt by the majority of citizens within a society. These threats and impacts include; problems with addiction and the related problem of the spread of infectious diseases particularly HIV/AIDS and an increase in crime associated to the drug trade brought about by addicts trying to finance their habit and by traffickers trying to obtain larger shares of a market. McFarlane (1996, p.459) points to another interesting threat which may emerge from an increase in crime: Furthermore, with increasing crime a free press and civil rights tend to be ignored both by the criminals and by the hard-pressed law enforcement agencies. The potential for the drug trade to affect economic security is also large and is more and more becoming the focus of anti-crime initiatives. The importance of programmes and clinics to help those with an addiction problem or associated health or medical problem diverts funds from other areas of the economy. Finance of resources to combat OTC and the drug trade also diverts money from other sectors of the economy. Destabilisation of a financial system can also occur through the process of money laundering (Chalk: 2001 p181). The threat of terrorism also looms large on the international stage, especially since the events of Sept 11 2001 in New York and in Bali on Oct 12 2002. Due to these events, Militant Islamic terrorism is the focus of much of the international effort against terrorism and is seen as an immediate threat to international security. The difference between terrorists and OTC syndicates is largely determined by their motives and objectives. While OTC will usually focus on the acquisition of profits and power, militant Islamic terrors purpose is commonly identified as the eradication of infidel. In this, they are becoming much more proficient. One of the reasons for this proficiency is the availability and affordability of weapons and supporting technology left over from old Cold War conflicts (Chalk 1999, p.161; Marenko n.d). Campbell (1997, p. 28, cited in Chalk 1999, p.163) suggests that terrorism Ã ¡has demonstrated an increasing trend towards growing lethality and extreme violenceÃâ¢ .suggesting a potential escalation spiral that could culminate in the indiscriminate use of weapons of mass destructionÃ ¢ As separate law and order issues, Organised Transnational Crime and non-profit motivated terrorism constitute immediate threats to international security. There is however, an escalating trend towards cooperation and indeed a convergence between these two groups, so much so that is becoming more difficult to distinguish between them. Since the end of the Cold War, state sponsored and subsidised terrorism has declined and terrorist organisations have turned to criminal like activities to fund operations (Jamieson 2001, p.379). The most common and threatening of these activities is drug trafficking which offers dividends that can often lead revolutionary groups to neglect their ideals. Hezbollah operates a narcotics export operation out of the Bekaa Valley in the Middle East, has ties with the insurgent Kurdistan Workers Party and with Russian organised crime and is a good example of a group turning to crime to fund their terror operations. Abu Sayyaf in the Philippines and the Revolut ionary Armed Forces of Columbia (FARC) are better examples of ideologically driven groups that that have transformed into criminal enterprises (Cillufo 2000). On the other hand, organised crime groups are increasing their use of terror tactics. In 1993 for example, the Sicilian Mafia carried out a series of car bomb attacks near historic sites on the Italian mainland with the aim of intimidating public opinion and Parliament into abrogating recently passed anti-mafia legislation (Jamieson 2001, p.379). The cooperation between and convergence of OTC and terrorism naturally poses a larger threat to international security than if they operated alone. It is implied by the Report on the 11th Meeting of the CSCSP Working Group on Transnational Crime (2002) that John McFarlane suggests that the attacks on Sept 11 2001 in New York could not have been perpetrated without criminal means and connections being used to acquire funds and identity papers. The direct threats of OTC, the Drug trade and terrorism have been recognised but a related threat must also be addressed. This threat comes from a disparity between the capabilities of OTC and terrorist groups and the ability of governments to stop their activities. This is exacerbated by the effects of globalisation. Naim (2003) best describes this situation Never fettered by the niceties of sovereignty, they [OTCs and terrorists] are now increasingly free of geographic constraints. Moreover, globalisation has not only expanded illegal markets and boosted the size and the resources of criminal networks, it has also imposed more burdens on governments: Tighter public budgets, decentralisation, privatisation, deregulation and a more open environment for national trade and investment all make the task of fighting global criminal more difficult. Governments are made up of cumbersome bureaucracies that generally cooperate with difficulty, but drug traffickers, arms dealers, alien smugglers, counterfeiters and money launderers have refined networking to a high science, entering into complex and improbable strategic alliances that span cultures and continents. It is clear from this that governments need to redefine notions of sovereignty in order to foster more international cooperation within the framework of strengthened international institutions. Organised Transnational Crime activities, particularly narcotics trafficking, are a serious threat to international security. They can destabilise a nation socially, politically and economically, which in turn can lead to destabilisation in the international community. The increasing occurrence and lethality of militant Islamic terrorism also creates concern for international stability. The most significant threat however, comes from a convergence of OTC and terrorism and the international communityÃ ¢s inability to react effectively to this increasing phenomena.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Develop - Assignment Example With the aid of slides, the computer system will also contain instruction handout to be distributed to students in soft copy. Others include The labor mobility training program is included in the circular in the institutional training package. As such, learners already have a slight exposure concerning such a program. Besides, many professionals including human resource personnels perceived such a program as an important element within every organization since it forms the backbone of productivity of the institution (Wankel & DeFillippi, 2003). It is important for the mobility training program to be delivered to learners within the organizational environment. The availability of working environment and infrastructure are considered towards the delivery of such a training program (Wankel & DeFillippi, 2003).The coursework is developed in such a way that all the learning procedures to suite employees from different departments both the staff and the executives in a similar, but distinct training platform. The package developed will allow for scalability and enhance learning from a simple training domain through real life working environment situations. The main focus of the above part of the revision is to provide an assessment and identification of areas within the training program that may require adjustments. For the labor mobility training program, evaluation of the feedback assessment procedure will be used to determine if indeed the students understood the coursework of the study. Simple questions with very brief answers will form part of the assessment. Some of the questions would require a practical effort while others will be moderated in form of multiple choices. After the final integration of the courseware into the training program, it is important to conduct a prototype training test. Such a test will be carried out for the duration of three weeks as planned by the training department. A good number
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
IHRM(international human resource management) - Essay Example The following sections will deliberate on VolvoÃ¢â¬â¢s strategies of maintaining competitive advantage in the Curitiba market. Resources and capabilities that Volvo can obtain from Curitiba It is apparent that for any organisation to develop and maintain competitive advantage, just like Aaker and McLoughlin 2007 stipulated, some concepts of working towards attaining organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals should be articulated upon. Curitiba, being a region of congested traffic, has been a potential market for Volvo. This is arguably true because, as contingency theory stipulates, the environment in which an organisation operates involves articulation of factors such as size and technology among many other factors (Hooley, Piercy and Nicoulaud 2008). In this regard, it is evident that Volvo has strategized on gaining competitive advantage in the Curitiba market. The fact that Curitiba is traffic congested makes it a strategic market for Curitiba to operate in. in essence, Volvo specialises on providing the buses for public transport. Analytically, this is in line with strategically operating in an environment that can provide market for its automobiles. Basically, the primary goal of any organisation is to enter into a market that has demand for its products, thus offering an opportunity to make profits (Martin 2013). Nevertheless, it is indispensable of the management of organisations to apply principles of leadership and management in order to make the right decisions when entering new markets. In another dimension, Volvo must have considered the issue of corporate social responsibility. In any metropolitan area, organisations should focus on applying both economic and corporate social responsibilities in order to be successful. For example, before entering into the Curitiba market, Volvo was aware of the need to formulate a strategy that would bring growth in this region. For example, in the process of providing buses for public transport, Volvo has simultaneously cre ated jobs for many residents in the city. The CSR issues involve bringing in social and responsibility factors into action (Piercy 2009). When people get jobs through VolvoÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in the public transport, their lives get uplifted, thus bringing the overall growth of the city. In addition, Volvo has been able to create its own organisational culture, through which its competitive advantage has been developed and maintained in Curitiba. VolvoÃ¢â¬â¢s organisational culture has been a reflection of its vision statement. However, organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture is developed strategically by its leaders and managers. It is the reflection of what the leaders and managers believes in and work towards realising their goals (Ranchhod and Gurau 2007). In order for Volvo to have managed to capture the Curitiba market, it is apparent that the management has developed a culture that keeps the company growing and surviving in a highly competitive market. For this to happen, the leade rship of the organisation should be well conversant with how to both manage the workforce and focus on customer satisfaction. Studies have document that forms that empowers their employees through various employees wellness and reward programs tend to have a smooth organisational culture development. Therefore, the human resource department must have a grasp of how it can motivate its employees in order to deliver top results. In regard to VolvoÃ¢â¬â¢s case, its workforce could be termed as proficient
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Theories of Motivation in Organization - Essay Example Greater the satisfaction level less will be turnover rate and thus, greater employee retention. One of the most important factors, that govern the employee retention within the organizations, is motivation level of the employees. There are many other factors such as pay, compensation packages and good environment but motivation is the one that serves the purpose. Employees work with innovation and uniqueness only when they are motivated to do so. Successful completion of the tasks depends not only upon the intrinsic rewards but extrinsic as well, such as appreciation by the supervisor that ultimately leads to employee satisfaction and makes them motivated. There is an old saying Ã¢â¬Ëyou can take a horse to the water but you cannot force it to drinkÃ¢â¬â¢; it will drink only if its thirsty - so is the case with people. Organizations operating in strong economies like UK and USA have considered employee motivation as their foremost and important task to carry out. Their focus is to motivate the employees to such an extent that they work in the best interest of the organization and towards the successful completion of tasks. Human resource department is trying their level best to introduce such policies and strategies that are coherent with the needs and demands of the employees in order to keep them motivated. This paper will shed light on motivation theories with their practical implications in the organization and on the literature dealing with motivation in organizations. One of the most important theories related to motivation is Goal Setting theory proposed by Edwin Locke in 1960. Findings made by Edwin said that intention to work towards a common goal is a major source of work motivation (Robbins, S. and Timothy, J., 2001), however, in order to understand the motivation in the work place there are several dimensions of goal setting theory that explains the motivation. Supervisors in contemporary times motivate
Friday, November 15, 2019
Product Marketing Element in the Luxury Car Industry Preface This essay discusses the role of product (a marketing element) in the luxury car industry. Various frameworks of strategic marketing management are reviewed and applied to the context of the luxury car industry. The essay argues that product decisions should not be done in isolation, as they are rather complex concepts that transcends the physical products itself, so a comprehensive approach is necessary during the strategic marketing process. Many of the business functions, including but not limited to marketing, have received strategic relevance in contemporary business discussions (Olson et al. 2005). This means that marketing is viewed (i.e. strategic marketing) as a strategically important component in business decisions in order to better reach and satisfy customers and to improve organisational performance (e.g. productivity and profit). Therefore, marketing should not be considered as a distinct business function that is only involved in promoting the product and sensing customer needs (Caru, 2008). In reality, strategic marketing closely collaborates with other functions to effectively differentiate from competing firms in a particular market by answering three rudimentary questions, which are where, and how the organisation should compete. This means that if strategic marketing is applied, it is well probable that strategic planning will have a close and an intensive dialogue with the marketing department (Smith et al. 1999). This essay intends to critically analyse the role of the product marketing mix in the luxury car industry. The reason why the product marketing mix was chosen is that this element plays an elevated role for those industries where there is a physical product sold (Trott, 2011). This does not mean that in other more service orientated industries (such as the banking and financial sector) the product mix have a lower role, however, marketing managers may want to focus more on other elements of the marketing mix to deliver an enhanced customer experience. Generally speaking, the key criterion for product is that it must satisfy existing or emerging customer needs in competitive markets, so organisations must place an extra emphasis on communicating why their products are superior to that of their competitors (GrÃ ¶nroos, 1997). This could be particularly true in the luxury car market industry where the competition between existing brands could be intensive. Short overview of the industry and its trends First and foremost, a key distinctive factor of the luxury car market is that its performance (i.e. sales volume) is less affected by changes in the macro environment (Bordley, 1993). The recent financial crisis severely hit the car manufacturing industry, however, the demand fluctuation in emerging markets was offset by a growing desire for luxury cars in emerging markets, such as China and the Middle East (Rapoza, 2014). The luxury car market is dominated by three brands, which are Mercedes Benz, BMW and Audi, altogether controlling the majority of the sales in this sector (Behrmann, 2016). The industry is expected to grow in the future, however, manufacturers and resellers must ensure that they closely follow developments in their external environment. The aforementioned brands are expected to maintain their market leading position, however, many other brands (such as Vauxhall) are also trying to enter the luxury market, mainly through by changing their product mix (i.e. the use o f premium materials in the interior or including such design features (e.g. large diameter wheels) that used to be the hallmark of luxury car products (Morton, 2013). The relative importance of the product mix in the luxury car industry It is widely understood that organisations must first carry out an internal analysis if they are pursuing strategic marketing and if they want to ensure that their products will be successful in their selected market(s) (in this case the luxury car industry) (Stevens et al. 1993). According to the 5C framework, organisations should analyse their customers need, their resources to produce and distribute a particular product, their industry context, competitors strategy, performance and whether or not forming strategic alliances could be a rational choice (Kaynak, 2005). To give relevant examples to the luxury car industry, the following assumptions regarding the 5C model could be taken: exiting and unsatisfied consumer needs (need for safety, prestige, luxury feeling without compromising the automobiles functionality); company resources: does the organisation have access to luxury suppliers or does it possess the necessary skills and expertise to manufacture luxury goods in house (e.g. high performance engines for Mercedes Benz AMG performance line cars); context: the products must follow changes in the external environment (e.g. growing interest towards electric cars or other miscellanies changes); competitors: identification of competing firms and benchmarking against them to develop a differentiated product; collaborations: is there any opportunities to form strategic alliances with suppliers? Many luxury cars openly associate themselves with other brands (e.g. Brembo). Once an organisation has assessed the above mentioned constraints (and preferably devised strategies to overcome these), the constraints must be linked with the marketing mix. Although this paper solely focuses on the role of product in the marketing mix, it must not be forgotten that strategic marketing may only contribute to organisational success if an integrated approach is adopted (Keller, 2001). The STP process (segmentation, targeting, positioning) is also a critical part of this holistic methodology, so product decisions must also be consistent with the selected market(s)s needs. Therefore, achieving business success is done through the development of a close with between the product, the customer and the marketing (Mohr et al. 2009). As such, a luxury car must have those product attributes which are sought after by the luxury car customer and the external communication strategy (i.e. the marketing communication) should clearly set out a product that is highly valued by poten tial customers (Martin, 1998). The product levels in the luxury car industry Despite the fact that the author of this paper previously argued that products are often perceived to be physical items, the theory of product levels illustrate that successful organisations must address all layers of the of product level diagram (Kotler et al. 2016). These levels are hierarchical, so the suggested holistic approach is also recommended for product management in order to ensure that customers are provided with a consistent product experience, given that each level closely reflects the target markets (luxury car buyers) expectations. The core product (even if it name suggests otherwise) is an intangible element of the product. It essentially entails the realisable benefits from the product use. In general terms, people purchase cars to facilitate their transportation from point A to point B, as other alternative modes of transportation (e.g. bus, taxi, walking Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ etc.) might not satisfy customer needs. The basic transportation need is overly generic for luxury car manufacturers, so understanding the psychology behind purchasing a good that well exceeds realistic customer needs is of paramount importance (Shukla, 2012). Luxury cars are seldom purchased for their convenience other car makers could perfectly satisfy transportation needs too, so there has to be another rationale behind a high value purchase. Although this paper is too short to enlist the possible psychological factors influencing luxury car purchases, it is realistic to assume that these decisions are overly driven by emotions (Kapferer , 1998). People driving luxury cars intend to communicate their status or they want to leverage on state-of-the art technology and safety features that somewhat counterbalance the irrational choice of luxury cars. Correspondingly, luxury car manufacturers must convince prospective buyers of the presence of these attributes, and seemingly the three market leading brands are succeeding. BMW, Audi and Mercedes Benz are recognised as status brands and their technological advancement and safety features are well above the industrys standards. In essence, this is the first step that customers examine before they actually visit a luxury car saloon to discuss further details of the product with a sales associate. The next product level is more tangible in its nature, as it encompasses the actual product (the actual car model, e.g. BMW X5, S-Klasse or S6) and its visual aspects (such as colour, style, quality, chassis contourÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ etc.) (Kotler et al. 2016).ÃâÃ Even though it is hard to separate this level from the actual product, it is important to emphasise that the core and the actual product must complement each other, so if a luxury car is designed to offer buyers a status symbol, this should be reflected in the cars physical appearance and certainly in other parts of the marketing mix (e.g. price, place, people) to maintain consistency. Whilst it is tempting to categorise goods into either services are products, there is often a continuum between the two polar ends of the spectrum, so luxury car manufacturers should also focus on the augmented product level (Zimmerman and Blythe, 2013). The augmented product level is mostly composed of service elements, such as after sale warranties, the delivery of the luxury car, maintenance services, financing and a quality customer care to address any customer concerns before, during and after the purchase. The concept of product level shows that the physical product is often just a fraction of the product marketing mix, as successful sellers must address each level in their product management. As it was previously suggested, a concerted approach to marketing is necessary, so luxury car manufacturers must warrant that other components of their marketing strategy (e.g. other elements of the marketing mix) are consistent with their product decisions (Kotler et al. 2016). If these recommendations are adhered to, organisations are able to establish product leadership, which is essential to maintain anticipation and excitement towards the products and to increase the number of new and existing customers (Cooper, 2005). This must be accompanied by a continuous product innovation (instead of just adding variety to products without any value or inspiration) so that luxury cars superiority is maintained. Product Assortment Product Width, Length and Depth A final consideration for product management in the luxury car market is product assortment. Product assortment entails all products that the seller offers for consumers (Thompson, 2000). Product width refers to the number of different product lines a manufacturer carries (e.g. high performance hatchbacks, Sport Utility Vehicles (SUVs), sedans, minibusesÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ etc.); product length measures the number of product variants within one category (e.g. optional car features, such as GPS or blind spot monitorÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ etc.), while product depth shows the total number of variants available at a particular manufacturer. Serving all segments is seldom possible, so organisations must carefully analyse potential customer segments to target, while also maintaining the financial interest of shareholders (Crane and Northeastern, 2012). The luxury car industry (or a matter of fact, the luxury good sector in general) could be considered to be in a highly specific market, opportunities in increasing product width is not always possible. For example, as introduced during lectures, Dyson manufactures vacuum cleaners, air treatment equipment and hand dryers, which are seemingly completely different products, nevertheless exiting resources could satisfy production needs for all products and there are definitely cross selling opportunities (i.e. commercial vacuum cleaner buyers might also be interested in air treatment equipment). In case of the luxury car industry, such synergies could be more difficult to attain, since the deployment of capacities for different product lines could be difficult, although Mercede s has successfully diversified into the heavy truck industry seemingly without compromising its luxury perception in its consumer market. Product length assortment consideration is more common in the luxury car industry, as within the passenger car product category, a high number of variants has been developed (Kotler et al. 2016). As previously mentioned, luxury cars come in a variety of forms, satisfying varying customer needs. While this product decision satisfies customer needs, it is also a kind of product diversification that helps luxury car manufacturers to shelter themselves from economic cycles conceivably during the economic recession, large luxury cars were sold in lower volume, yet a cheaper model variant remained affordable to the target without compromising on quality. To conclude, the essay demonstrated the role of the product marketing element in the luxury car industry. It was gradually explored why careful product considerations are necessary in order to ensure a consistency in an organisations marketing strategy and marketing process. It was also highlighted that thinking of products as physical items is not advisable to fully understand what a product is instead, as the theory of product levels has shown, products must provide a holistic consumer experience in the luxury car industry. References Behrmann, E. (2016) Mercedes on pace to win 2016 global sales crown from BMW. Available at: http://www.autonews.com/article/20160811/RETAIL01/160819974/mercedes-on-pace-to-win-2016-global-sales-crown-from-bmw (Accessed: 15 January 2017). Bordley, R. F. (1993) Estimating automotive Elasticities from segment Elasticities and First choice/Second choice data, The Review of Economics and Statistics. 75(3), p455. CarÃ ¹, A. (2008) Strategic market creation: A new perspective on marketing and innovation management. Chichester, United Kingdom: John Wiley Sons. Cooper, R. G. (2004) Product leadership: Pathways to profitable innovation. New York, NY: Basic Books. Crane, F. G. and Northeastern (2012) Marketing for entrepreneurs: Concepts and applications for new ventures. London: SAGE Publications. GrÃ ¶nroos, C. (1997) ValueÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã driven relational marketing: From products to resources and competencies, Journal of Marketing Management. 13(5), pp.407-419. Kapferer, J.-N. (1998) Why are we seduced by luxury brands?, Journal of Brand Management. 6(1), pp.44-49. Kaynak, E. (2005) Marketing issues in western Europe: Changes and developments. New York, NY, United States: International Business. Keller, K. (2001) Mastering the marketing communications mix: Micro and Macro perspectives on integrated marketing communication programs, Journal of Marketing Management. 17(7-8), pp.819-847. Kotler, P., Keller, K. L. and Brady, M. (2016) Marketing management. Harlow, United Kingdom: Pearson Education. Martin, C. L. (1998) Relationship marketing: A highÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã involvement product attribute approach, Journal of Product Brand Management. 7(1), pp.6-26. Mohr, J. J., Sengupta, S. and Slater, S. (2009) Marketing of high-technology products and innovations. Boston, MA, United States: Prentice Hall. Morton, R. (2013) Insignia: Vauxhalls luxury company car. Available at: https://www.businesscarmanager.co.uk/insignia-vauxhalls-hidden-luxury-company-car/ (Accessed: 15 January 2017). Olson, E. M., Slater, S. F. and Hult, G. T. M. (2005) The performance implications of fit among business strategy, marketing organization structure, and strategic behavior, Journal of Marketing. 69(3), pp.49-65. Rapoza, K. (2014) Emerging markets to drive automotive comeback. Forbes. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/sites/kenrapoza/2014/09/01/emerging-markets-to-drive-automotive-comeback/ (Accessed: 15 January 2017). Shukla, P. (2012) The influence of value perceptions on luxury purchase intentions in developed and emerging markets, International Marketing Review. 29(6), pp.574-596. Smith, P. R., Berry, C., Pulford, A. and Baxter, M. (1999) Strategic marketing communications: New ways to build and integrate communications. London: Kogan Page. Stevens, R. E., Sherwood, P. K., Dunn, P. and Winston, W. (1993) Market analysis: Assessing your business opportunities. New York: Haworth Press. Thompson (2000) Strategic Management. New York, NY, United States: McGraw-Hill Education. Trott, P. (2011) Innovation management and new product development (5th edition). Harlow, England: Financial Times/Prentice Hall. Zimmerman, A. and Blythe, J. (2013) Business to business marketing management: A global perspective. London: Taylor Francis.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Employee Rights & Managing Discipline All corporations strive to have strong employee relations, recognizing employee rights and effectively administering discipline are two vital aspects of developing this relationship. These aspects, meticulously executed, generate increased job satisfaction amongst employees and improved performance. Identifying and observing various employee rights is an integral piece of managing discipline. Management must be cognizant of these employee rights, divided into three separate categories: statutory rights, contractual rights, and other rights (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, and Cardy 441).Statutory rights, particular rights protected by specific legislation are often regulated by an agency of a state or federal government. A crucial right, developed by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is the protection from discrimination based on race, sex, religion, national origin, age, or handicap. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission of the federal government monitors employers to ensure that current and/or potential employees do not suffer from unfair discrimination.Protection against unsafe or unhealthy working conditions, another vital statutory right, falls under the regulation of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, and Cardy 441). Contractual rights, granted by the law of contracts, derived from a legally binding promise created by two or more competent parties with remedies for non-compliance are another key element. Employment contracts, a classic example, clearly define the terms and conditions of employment for all involved parties.An advantage of such contracts entitles an employee to compensation if he/she is discharged for reasons other than nonperformance; this particular privilege is usually only available to individually negotiated contracts. Yet, benefits sheltered by union contracts include the right to due process and wrongful discharge remedies. Due process, the impartial investigation of discip linary actions allow members under a union contract to claim back pay and other job rights if found to have been wrongfully discharged (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, and Cardy 441-442).However, these contracts are rare in the work force; most individuals, commonly employed at will, grant employer and/or employee an opportunity to terminate the relationship at any time for any cause. Employee rights, neither statutory nor contractual are other rights, encompassing, the right to ethical treatment, a limited right to privacy, and a limited right to free speech. Fair and ethical treatment by an employer is a reasonable expectation of employees, thus management needs to devise a culture promoting such treatment.Developing this culture include, but not limited to, techniques, such as, developing trust, acting consistently, demonstrating integrity, and ensuring that employees are treated equitably. Incorporating some of these practices will aid organizations to avoid high turnover rates, which can be damaging to the bottom line. The limited right to privacy, another defined other right, enables employees from unreasonable and unwarranted invasions of their personal affairs. Searches of an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s personal workspace or listening to their conversations should be limited situations initiated by reasonable cause or acquiring prior consent.Mark Dupont and Roy Clarke, shareholders of Richards, Watson, & Gershon, outline an effective method in which a corporation can acquire consent from employees: Ã¢â¬Å"Cover everything. Make the policy as broad as possible to cover all types of electronic communications that occur on work equipment, including those that may be developed and implemented in the future [cell phone, e-mail, text messaging, instant messaging, and so forth). The policy should be set up to evolve with the rapid pace of technology. . . Make sure the policy matches practice. . .Take care that mid-level managers do not undermine the policy with stray comments and assurances that are contrary to the policy. Make sure that the policy matches up with actual practice. If the policy intends a no-personal-use policy, do not undermine that directive with mixed messages. It is also advisable to have employees sign an acknowledgement that they have read and understand the policy, . . At the same time, make sure the policy is practical if incidental personal use is inevitable, understand the implications of such a policy, and address it (Privacy rights). Another privacy issue arises from the handling of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ personnel files, containing sensitive personal information. These essential files ought to be available only to a limited population of the corporation in order to protect an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s privacy. Individuals vigorously protect the right to free speech, a cornerstone of the U. S. Constitution; nonetheless, this is limited within the private sector. An employee publicly disagreeing with corporate strategies is to expect disciplin e. Moreover, inflammatory or abusive language insulting superiors, peers, and/or clients warrant negative onsequences (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, and Cardy 442-445). Successful implementation of discipline while adhering to the standards and expectations of employee rights does encounter adversity; random drug testing, whistle blowing, and the restriction of office romances consist of a few challenges management must confront (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, and Cardy 447). Many employees view random drug testing as a direct violation of their right to privacy, claiming the practice is an unreasonable invasion. The intent of random drug testing is to create a safer work environment by the most equitable means, but it continually meets resistance.Therefore, many private corporations have opted for other avenues to ensure workplace safety. One method utilized by private firms is pre-employment drug testing, a test given to all potential employees, as a step in the hiring process dissipates tension bet ween employee and management concerning the issue, in essence, an applicantÃ¢â¬â¢s failure of this drug test enables a firm the right not to extend an employment opportunity. Another alternative is probable cause drug testing, occurring when an employee engages in unsafe or suspicious behavior.Both forms of testing do not arise randomly, but transpire for a predetermined reason, alleviating the issue of invasion of privacy (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, and Cardy 447-449). The act of whistle blowing, an instance when an employee discloses illegal, immoral, or illegitimate practices of an employer, presents another delicate situation for corporations. A whistle blowing incident requires a tempered response from a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s management team, compelling them to retain authority without trampling an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s right to free speech.Managers must refrain from behaving inappropriately and encouraging dire measures, such as, ostracizing, harassing, or firing the vocal employee. Despite a reasonable response from management, whistle blowing is still a risky endeavor and an individual should accumulate the proper documentation before going forward. Yet, such undertakings have produced valuable legislation; the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, provides protection to whistle blowers and holds offending parties accountable for their infractions (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, and Cardy 451-453). Administering restrictions on office romances commands another balancing act from managers.Management must determine the appropriate measures to limit the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s liability from sexual harassment litigation, but not infringe upon employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ off-duty relationships and behaviors, invading their privacy. A few corporations elect to establish a no-dating policy even with this policyÃ¢â¬â¢s drawbacks; namely, the difficulty of enforcing the policy or being compelled to terminate a valuable employee for a violation of this policy despite no illegal activity occurring. Conversely, othe r firms encourage office romances acknowledging the benefits of a happier and more stable work force.These two scenarios are the extremes, most companies find comfort with the middle ground of neither condemning nor condoning office romances, rather accepting them as long as they do not involve a supervisor and his/her direct subordinate (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, and Cardy 453-454). Effectively disciplining employees while respecting their rights may be cumbersome, but two different approaches, commonly used, are a progressive style and a positive style of discipline, both consisting of the manager discussing questionable behavior with an employee (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, and Cardy 454).Progressive discipline, multiple interactions giving employees opportunities to correct deviant behavior before dismissal, typically addressing minor infractions comprise of three to five steps. The initial step, a verbal warning, describes the behavioral miscue and notifies the employee of possible consequ ences if the undesired behavior persists. An employee committing another infraction of the same policy within a specified period will be subjected to a written warning.This recorded documentation, entered into the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s personnel file, reiterates the issue and describes further repercussion if the problem continues. The severity of the situation increases with each successive step of the progressive discipline process, thus not heeding these warnings, an employee may face unpaid suspension and/or eventual discharge from a company (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, and Cardy 455-456). Another multiple step form of discipline, positive discipline, is similar to the progressive method without the adversarial aspect.This process encourages cooperation among managers and employees, opening a dialogue to correct deficient behaviors. The first step involves a discussion of the poor performance and a verbal solution to the problem. If this proves ineffective, the subsequent step is another c ounseling session, but the agreed upon resolution is now documented. Squandering both these opportunities still results with the employee taking time away from the work, as with progressive discipline, however, under the positive method this is paid.This approach attempts to avoid ill-mannered behavior from the offending employee upon return with hope that the performance is improved, if not, separation of employment is the final action. While the initial implementation is costly and the administering of this method is time-consuming, both, managers and employees prefer this process. The cooperative construct of counseling eliminates apprehensions regarding discipline, creating managers more apt to intervene when an issue arises, fostering better working relationships with their employees (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, and Cardy 455-457).Incorporating basic principles within the management of discipline regardless of the severity of the infraction creates uniformity and understanding. Manage ment should communicate the rules, expectations, and performance criteria to all employees clearly, thus creating a workforce knowledgeable of the policies, procedures, and consequences of their violation. All information, properly documented, enables both, management and employees, to present and/or dispute only facts.Furthermore, discipline administered quickly, consistently, and without discrimination is the most effective. Michael S. Lavenantan, attorney at the law firm of Landegger & Baron, specializing in labor & employment law suggest: Ã¢â¬Å"To avoid liability for harassment, discrimination, or wrongful demotion or termination, every organization should train its supervisors to follow these six non-negotiable rules of discipline. 1. Be fair. 2. Be consistent 3. Be uniform. 4. Be honest. 5. Be objective. 6. Be prepared.Following these six rules will help you minimize liability when an employee makes a claim. Educating supervisors about these rules will give them the right bal ance between authority and receptivity. The result will be low turnover and high productivity for your organizationÃ¢â¬ (The Art of Employee Discipline). In conclusion, recognizing employee rights and managing discipline is a complicated task requiring the attention to numerous details, yet, done in an efficient, effective manner will generate a stronger work force prepared to succeed.Works Cited Gomez-Mejia, Luis R. , David B. Balkin, and Robert L. Cardy. Managing Human Resources. 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2010. Print. Dupont, Norman, and Roy Clarke. Ã¢â¬Å"Privacy rights: employee use of electronic devices in the workplace. Ã¢â¬ Public Management 92. 10 (2010): 24+. Academic OneFile. Web. 30 Nov. 2010. Lavenant, M.. Ã¢â¬Å"THE ART OF EMPLOYEE DISCIPLINE: How to Retain Control & Increase Production. Ã¢â¬ Nonprofit World 1 Jul 2010: ABI/INFORM Global, ProQuest. Web. 1 Dec. 2010.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
The gentle breeze of summer is kissing the rice fields of a well known man named Pedro. His majestic house is facing the fields as if they were being observed in a daily basis. Pedro is known for his kindness with his neighbors. He is able to help them in times of need and he is really ready for giving his hand to the charity. Though he resides in a rural area, his sons and daughters were sent to urban places where they can have new information about the world. The schools or universities where his children study are of high quality. Moreover, one of his daughters often get high grades at school that he really becomes so proud of her. Their neighbors are getting envious with the achievements that they get from the universities. Pedro thinks that he can retire at an early age given that there will be someone who will take care of the farms and, that will be his children who can make the business expand. One morning, Pedro realized that there were already 6 months since he last saw his firstborn. The 20 year old girl was taking up a course in the premium University of their State and is trying hard to pursue a degree in medicine. He named the girl Gennovive as the name may imply uniqueness and extravagance. Indeed, this girlÃ¢â¬â¢s education costs the largest among the 3 children of Pedro. Since she is pursuing medicine, Pedro and his wife Hanami, get used to seeing her only once in a month. But this time is different. With a very troublesome afternoon, Gen was scolded by his father for having a number of failing grades at school. This is the first time that the girl received those kinds of marls in the class cards. Emotions of Gen Ã¢â¬Å"The sole reason why I got those grades is the difficulty of the subjects themselves. Ã¢â¬ Those were the words Pedro remember Gen told her the time they had the encounter. The only thing that Gen was concerned about was to help his dad in putting up a new business and expanding their assets as she graduate from her school. She sobbed, closed herself in her dim lit room to reflect her shortcomings during the previous semester. She has some faults, yes! Letting someone get into her heart with such a close relationship and loving him whole heartedly. After some time, she found herself broken with the memories of her so-called boyfriend. Things that she could not confront with her dad, these are such examples. After that, she was too busy grieving for her loss only to realize how miserable she was with the mourning and crying. It was too late when she decided to take a step away from her past, from the man who actually stole her everything. Long Awaited With some tears on PedroÃ¢â¬â¢s face, he saw a silhouette of a girl who eventually approached her and hugged her with tears. Ã¢â¬Å"Dad, I am sorry! Ã¢â¬ . Both of them were over whelmed that they did not notice Hanami approaching. Gen told her father of how she coped with her sadness and the reasons while she failed the last semester. In turn, she gave her dad 3 medals that she garnered for some contests in their university plus the news that she was chosen to be a delegate for the international campaign for health. The whole house was very happy for her arrival. Just like the story of the Biblical Prodigal Son, Pedro invited his closest friends to have a dinner at their place to celebrate GenÃ¢â¬â¢s come back and the victory of being chosen as the delegate of the nation.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Taming of the Shrew essays Within The Taming of the Shrew, Shakespeare unfolds a plot that uses the tools of silence and misinterpretation to satirize the roles of women and marriage during Elizabethan times. Ironically, it is Katherine who is labeled a shrew, yet she has very little actual voice within this play. On the other hand, while acting in a shrewish manner, Petruchio gives voice back to Katherine in exchange for her submission. The silence of Sly is important, as his presence buffers the seriousness of the concerns raised by the perspective of his character watching a play. This leads us to question: is it Katherine who is being tamed, or is it the audiences reaction that is being tamed? During the Elizabethan era, women were expected to conduct themselves according to strict social norms. A woman was only considered suitable for marriage if she were obedient, chaste and silent in manner. For a woman to step outside of this traditional role whether by voicing an opinion in contradiction to her husband, or in not obeying his instruction was to break social order and thereby be labeled a shrew. This behavior was considered the ultimate curse to a husband. It was acceptable custom for the perpetrating wife to be carted through town, publicly humiliated and cast out of their circle of friends and neighbors. According to the historical reference in the Oxford English Dictionary, the term shrew meant an endless chattering tongue, but also denoted an evil or disdainful nature. The term was typically applied to women. Shakespeare pokes fun at the formal restrictions on behavior of females in Elizabethan society and questions the benefits of marriage in this play, yet he does so in a removed fashion through the use of Slys character most likely so as to not to invoke contempt of the court. The audience is watching Sly watching a play. Shakespeare tells us ...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
The Seattle Scene essays Nirvana. Pearl Jam. Soundgarden. Alice in Chains. The early 90s were ruled by bands like this. They were all grunge bands and Seattle was the origin of it. But were these the bands that started it all? Where did they suddenly come from? How come music like this was never heard of before until these bands emerged on the scene? What exactly was the music scene like before Well truth be told, all of these bands were actually formed from numerous other bands that had gone their separate ways. But before I get ahead of myself, allow me to take you back to the late 80s and early 90s. Seattle was very much like any other town with a small music scene. Most of the bands in Seattle would actually move to la to see if they could get signed or to see if they had any future in music. Many musicians in the small dreary town of Seattle would actually just go a record their music and put out a small album that really only sold to locals. One of the more popular labels in Seattle was Sub-Pop Records. In 1986, they released an album called Deep Six, which really was a compilation of various small bands. Of course the album was purchased only by locals and not really anybody else. The two owners of Sub-Pop records came up with a great marketing idea. Instead of promoting the music, they promoted their label. It was made out to be like an honor to be on this label. They paid for a music critic form London in 1988 to fly over , see of couple of shows of a band called Mudhoney, and then sent him back. Well this reporter spoke so highly of the Seattle scene that London was actually where all this music was hitting. Everything and anything from Seattle was being exploited. After about 2 years, and no radio play in the US people in Seattle thought that this little phenomenon would die. Then in 1991, a guy named Kurt called Jack Endino, who ...