Friday, December 27, 2019

The Theory Of Operant Conditioning - 1212 Words

Operant conditioning (sometimes referred to as instrumental conditioning) is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behavior and a consequence for that behavior. For example, when a lab rat presses a blue button, he receives a food pellet as a reward, but when he presses the red button he receives a mild electric shock. As a result, he learns to press the blue button but avoid the red button. The History of Operant Conditioning. Operant conditioning was coined by behaviorist B.F. Skinner, which is why you may occasionally hear it referred to as Skinnerian conditioning. As a behaviorist, Skinner believed that it was not really necessary to look at internal thoughts and motivations in order to explain behavior. Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior. Through the first part of the 20th-century, behaviorism had become a major force within psychology. The ideas of John B. Watson dominated this school of thought early on. Watson focused on the principles of classical conditioning, once famously suggesting that he could take any person regardless of their background and train them to be anything he chose. Where the early behaviorists had focused their interests on associative learning, Skinner was more interested in how the consequences of people s actions influenced their behavior. Skinner used the term operant to refer t oShow MoreRelatedThe Theory Of Operant Conditioning869 Words   |  4 Pagesthree and a half-year old Gertrude to whom I will apply the theory of operant conditioning to get her to meet a scheduled bed time. Her Mother is facing a steep learning curve with respect to; second language, new cultural, a newborn with a serious disease and isolated from her family (UK and Congo). It is of the utmost importance that we have Gertrude’s behaviour changed to ease the transition to Canada. Discussion Operant conditioning is happening in our everyday lives, it can be found at workRead MoreThe Theory Of Operant Conditioning1489 Words   |  6 PagesOperant Conditioning Operant conditioning is a form of learning where people or animals change their behavior because of the reinforcement given after a desired response. A good example of operant conditioning is, a teacher giving five percent of the marks to students, who have good attendance. The theory is useful in teaching programmed instructions, where the information is given in small bits to reinforce the responses (Litow Pumroy, 1975). Additionally, the theory can help in shaping students’Read MoreTheory of Operant Conditioning933 Words   |  4 PagesTheory of Operant Conditioning Instrumental conditioning, otherwise known as operant conditioning is a theory that B.F Skinner came up with and is defined as a learning process by which the consequence of an operant response affects the likelihood of the response recurring in the future. Basically, operant conditioning is a stimulus response prototype that when reinforced, conditions individuals or organisms response to a desired behavior (Huitt, W., Hummel, J., 1997) Our behaviors are shapedRead MoreThe Theory of Operant Conditioning1136 Words   |  5 Pages The Theory of Operant Conditioning PSY390 October 6, 2014 Introduction The study of human behavior by psychologists such as B.F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike, Ivan Pavlov, and Watson is fascinating. These five psychologists each have different theories on human behavior. There are similarities and differences in each of the theories. Ivan Pavlov’s classical conditioning theory, studied animals and formed the basis for behavioral psychology (Cherry, 2013). Edward Thorndike’s theory of connectionismRead MoreThe Theory Of Operant Conditioning989 Words   |  4 PagesOperant Conditioning: Procrastination The principals of operant conditioning, teaches how having certain coping techniques can reward certain undesirable behaviors. Conditioning human behavior has been studied for many years, Psychologists Edward Thorndike and B.F. Skinner, have dedicated majority of their lives to the study. Thorndike’s theory Law of effect. Thorndike suggest that certain stimuli and response become connected or dissociated from each other. His experiment worked by placing a catRead MoreThe Theory Of Operant Conditioning1792 Words   |  8 PagesIn the textbook operant conditioning can be defined as â€Å"the control of behavior through manipulation of rewards and punishments in the environment, particularly the laboratory environment† (Cervone Pervin, 2013). B.F. skinner who created the operant conditioning procedure believed that all humans are controlled by the environments that they experience and that by changing the environment it is possible to reinforce a behavior that benefits e veryone (Cervone Pervin, 2013). Skinner also believedRead MoreThe Theory Of Operant Conditioning1934 Words   |  8 Pagesat the theory of Operant Conditioning and all the many aspects that go along with it. This theory of Operant Conditioning by B. F. Skinner is a great guideline that can be used in the classroom. Operant Conditioning is definitely a theory that can change the way a classroom is ran. Throughout this paper we will see what behaviorism is and what operant conditioning is as a whole, along with the educational implications of this theory. Biographical Background of (Theorist) The theory of Operant ConditioningRead MoreThe Theory Of Operant Conditioning Theory Essay746 Words   |  3 Pagescame up with the idea of what is known as operant conditioning (Rholetter, 2013). Operant conditioning is one of two theories in learning that illustrates behaviorism (Kretchmar, 2015). It is according to Rholetter (2013), â€Å"the idea that behavior is the learned result of consequences†. Skinner believed that learning during operant conditioning is done based upon the outcome of a given situation (Lefrancois, 2012, p. 91). His operant conditioning theory is constructed on reinforcements consistingRead MoreBehaviorism And The Operant Conditioning Theory Essay1415 Words   |  6 Pagesalso. Learning theories are conceptualized frameworks which describe how individuals absorb, process and retain information. Behaviorists such as John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, Edward L. Thorndike, Ivan Pavlov and Edwin R. Guthrie believed that all learners were passive in natu re and only responded to external stimuli. Behaviorism, as explored by the before mentioned, is a biological basis of learning and focuses exclusively on observable behaviors. This includes Thorndike’s theory of connectionismRead MoreThe Theory Of Behaviorism And Operant Conditioning895 Words   |  4 Pages B.F Skinner Renowned American psychologist B.F. Skinner, well known for his theory on behaviorism and operant conditioning. He was the most influential 20th - century psychologist. His works includes â€Å"The Behavior of Organisms† (1938) which was about the results in his experiment with operant conditioning, and a novel based on his theories â€Å"Walden† (1948). He was not only a psychologist he was a behaviorist, teacher, author, inventor, and a social philosopher as well. Born as Burrhus Frederic

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Effectiveness Of Academic Writing On Research Writing

Credibility in Research Writing Introduction There are different styles of scholarly writing and each of the writing has certain format that students will have to follow for their field of study. Research paper is one of the writing that students will encounter in their major classes. In my past Child Development class, especially CHDV 123 writing research paper was required in the class. After writing the literature review about observation and how the observer have to be sure that the information he or she present have to be valid, it made me think about credibility in research writing which help me develop my research question. Furthermore, with the research paper, we as students have to make sure that our research has credibility or the research is not valid. Therefore, credibility is crucial in this field. However, as a student who major in Child Development, we focus more on qualitative research which requires us to make sure that there is credibility in our paper. By having credibility in our paper, it allows us to bui ld trustworthiness in our research and eliminating the bias in our research. According to Kopala, she states that, â€Å"Trustworthiness also encompasses efforts to reduce or at the very least to make explicit sources of bias by the researcher.† (30) In this research report, my research question was wondering the importance of having credibility in research writing for Child Development major?† In this research, I will be using two different methods toShow MoreRelatedThe Importance Of Academic Writing1024 Words   |  5 Pagesdocuments are used and published widely for everyone, writing has become an essential way of communicating. Although, the effectiveness of academic writing is a discussion among scholars its relevance should not be neglected. For some educators, academic writing does not add practicality to the students future career communication; for others, college-level writing is an essential learning tool. Moreover, students are struggled in understand acade mic writing real usefulness and try to avoid this disciplineRead MoreProgram And Academic Success Center844 Words   |  4 PagesUniversity Writing Center (UWC) and Academic Success Center (ASC) are two of the university facilities that help students enrich their academic experience. While UWC assists students in improving their written and oral communication skills through one to one consulting sessions, online resources, and workshops, ASC works to enhance students’ intellectual performance through academic coaching, supplemental instruction, drop-in tutoring sessions, and peer mentoring. Both of the organizations take aRead MoreThe Importance Of Academic Writing1158 Words   |  5 PagesWriting has become an essential way of communication in a technological world in which our voice has been transformed into written words, through text messages, e-mails, and documents widely used and published by everyone. By being a critical issue, students are compelled to learn College -level writing in college; although, the effectiveness of Academic Writing is a discussion among scholars its relevance should not be neglected. For some educators, academic writing does not add practicality to theRead MoreWriting Paper837 Words   |  4 PagesI would like to research the lack of concern on the importance of physical education in middle school/high school students. My research will prove that physical activity in schools help activate the brain, improve on-task behavior during academic instruction time. I was amazed to learn of the correlation between regular physical movement and brain development in young children. What programs exist that would aid in my bringing movement - and by extension, greater brain development - to my studentsRead MoreComparative Outcomes Of Two Instructional Models For Students With Learning Disabilities1488 Words   |  6 PagesStudents with Learning Disabilities: Inclusion with Co-Teaching and Solo-Taught Special Education. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 251-258. Retrieved November 22, 2014. Summary In the following study researchers compared two instructional approaches; co-teaching inclusion and solo-taught special education for students with learning disabilities in regard to their overall academic achievement. Participants of the study included twelve inclusive/co-teaching classrooms, which were comparedRead MoreCritical And Sophisticated Type Of Academic Writing And Can Easily Be Constructed By Breaking Down Its Basic Structure933 Words   |  4 Pages Essays are a comprehensive and sophisticated type of academic writing and can easily be constructed by breaking down its basic structure. A quality essay is one that presents and supports an argument on a particular topic by applying well-constructed research. Writing an academic essay can be a complicated task, but by paying attention to key elements such as structure, content and presentation, the essay will be easy to develop. However incorrect use of these basic steps can lead the paper to lackRead MoreThe Age Of The Female Students1281 Words   |  6 Pagesprevious knowledge. Additionally, the students average scores in the previous year have been taken from the school manager. Also, the academic self regulation scale has been administrated. Therefore, the variables (age, intelligence, previous knowledge, total average in English courses of the students during the academic year 2014-2015 and the pre test of the academic self regulation have been controlled for both groups as s hown in Table 3. (3): Means , Variance and T -Value of the Five VariablesRead MoreThe University Writing Center And The Academic Success Center941 Words   |  4 PagesThe University Writing Center (UWC) and the Academic Success Center (ASC) are two of the university initiatives that help students enrich their academic experience. While UWC assists students in improving their written and oral communication skills through one to one consulting sessions, online resources, and workshops, ASC works to enhance students’ intellectual performance through academic coaching, supplemental instruction, drop-in tutoring sessions, and peer mentoring. Both of the organizationsRead MoreRhetorical Analysis Of Turbocharger Design Effect On Gasoline Engine Performance 1255 Words   |  6 Pagesthere lies a problem. Rather, it is the ability of the researchers and academics to appropriately communicate their findings to others that is troublesome. Rhetorical analyses are critical in the understating and sharing of new scientific discoveries in the academic world. The authors must be clear and focused in their writing if their papers and articles are to be rhetorically effective. Ways to accomplish this include writing in the IMRAD format, being mindful of the intended audience, assuringRead MoreWhat Is Effective Instruction1417 Words   |  6 Pagesskills, is an effective teacher. According to Sanders (1996), research shows that students who are assigned with the most effective teachers in three years score as many 50 percentile points higher on achievement compared to students who are assigned to the least effective teachers (Sanders amp; Rivers, 1996). During years research has documented many of the effective practices for students that struggle in academic skills; reading, writing, and math. In few words all these practices are called Effective

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Adam Smith free essay sample

Adam Smith is undoubtedly one of the most celebrated scholars of all time since his revolutionary theories on trade changed the way people engaged in commerce and ultimately the role of government in regulating trade within and without. Adam Smith was infuriated by the mercantile policies that sought to promote the accumulation of gold and silver and which emphasized strict government control on trade and the flow of resources and labor. In addition he did not view agriculture as the only means for society to satisfy its means and in his view such singular thoughts limited growth of all sectors. Smith believed in a system of natural liberty whose end he believed would be effective trade and significant expansion of trade through growth of sectors. He believed that human beings should be allowed to pursue their individual interest since in his own opinion this personal interest always ends up benefiting the whole of society. We will write a custom essay sample on Adam Smith or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This system also has the capacity to correct imbalances that might result out of free trade. This is because a reduction in the supply of a commodity would result into increased demand for that commodity resulting into an increased cost of the commodity leading to increased production of the same in order to reap the increased profit. This would in turn lead to an increase in competition among the suppliers lowering the price of the commodity. This competition among traders prevents monopolistic behavior that would lead to exploitation of consumers. Smith explained that for great productivity to be achieved, self interest would lead to division of labor giving rise to specialization to particular tasks. This in turn leads to great skill in the specialized tasks, saving of important time and much needed innovations. Smith felt that wealth of nations was influenced by the amount of trade that existed between the inhabitants of towns and those in farms. He saw it as being vital for such trade to exist to provide market for both their commodities. On those who felt that lack of government interference might lead some to other countries where labor is cheaper, he felt that they would be stopped from doing so due to their nationalistic feelings and this will be ultimately for the good of the countries. Work Cited Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, vol. 39. Chicago, Ill.: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 195 Adam Smith free essay sample Adams Smith was a famous professor of moral psychology who set out simple principles designed the free the self-interest of the average working man. Adam Smith is famous for his â€Å"The Wealth of Nations†, because it is one of the contemporary economic thoughts.   Adam Smith was born in a small village situated in Scotland. He was raised by a widowed mother until entering the University of Glasgow. He started studying at the University at the age of fourteen and such practice was usual in those times. Ten he attended Balliol College at Oxford. Smith graduated with proper knowledge in European literature and returned home. After delivering lectures, he became a chair of logic and moral philosophy at the University of Glasgow[1].In 1764 Adam Smith decided to leave academia and to each young duke of Buccleuch. Together they had been traveling for two years throughout Switzerland and France. It was an experience that â€Å"brought Smith into contact with contemporaries Voltaire, Francois Quesnay, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Jacques Turgot†[2]. We will write a custom essay sample on Adam Smith or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Serving duke, Smith earned life pension and after retiring he wrote â€Å"The Wealth of Nation† being published firstly in 177. American Declaration of Independence was also signed this year. Later smith was appointed commissioner of customs, though that position was uncomfortable for him. It is known that Adam Smith had never been married. He died in 1790, July 19.Smith’s writings and ideas are likely to be the guidelines of bedrock of the American economic success. Smith provided information how to survive in capitalist country and to remain humane[3]. His ideas on economy and well-being are important for understanding the growing discomfort being experienced by American society.   Smith’s ideas were integral to the vision of the Founding Fathers. Therefore, his ideas found practical application in American nation. American dream nowadays is significantly magnified by globalization processes, technology developments, though social good is paid less attention[4].Actually, Adam Smith is respected for his attempts to explain the rational self-interest in terms of free-market economy ad how self-interest leads to economic development and well-being. Therefore, Smith ideas may seem as ruthless individualism concentrated on ethics and charity. It is admitted that Smith’s theory is based mostly on biology of human behavior. Factually, Adam Smith was the first to rationalize the human instincts and desires within the economic framework. Whybrow cites Smith arguing that contemporary society is driven by self-love and self-interest to achieve the desired outcomes. Most humans are hard-working and ingenious willing to achieve great social benefits. Smith asserts that it is the instinct of self-preservation. The essential complement is the instinctual curiosity meaning the desire to explore new places. Success of market society depends on individuals’ democracies and liberties as well as the freedom of expression. Adams summarized the keys to social improvements suggesting they were curiosity, self-interest, self-preservation, material gains and expressed ambitions.Adam Smith wrote: â€Å"How selfish soever man may be supposed, there are evidently some principles in his nature which interest him in the fortune of others and render their happiness necessary to him though he derives nothing from it except the pleasure of seeing it†[5]. As it is mentioned above, Smith was rather interested in explanation of self-interest. Therefore, he strongly objected to idea that self-interest or self-love was â€Å"was a principle which could never be virtuous in any degree†[6].Smith though that life of humans would be tough and difficult if humans’ â€Å"affections, which, by the very nature of our being, ought frequently to influence our conduct, could upon no occasion appear virtuous, or deserve esteem and commendation from anybody†[7]. He considered the notions of sympathy and self-interest ethical and stated they complemented each other. He explained that â€Å"man has almost constant occasion for the help of his brethren, and it is in vain for him to expect it from their benevolence only[8]†. Therefore, charity alone was unable to improve the quality of living. Further, self-interest could remedy and essentially improve living: â€Å"It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we can expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest †[9].Smith argued that a person earning money would benefit not only himself, but also benefit society as earning income in competitive market suggested that he produced something valuable for to others. Smith claimed that it was necessary to direct industry in such a way that it would produce the greatest values to be able to promote economic well-being. â€Å"The Wealth of the Nations: reveals the ideas of causes and consequences of American prosperity. According to Smith, the main reason of prosperity is globalization and division of labor. Smith’s famous example of prosperity is based on pins.The central idea of Smith was to find out how labor and other resources should be applied the best to give individual am opportunity to benefit. Smith argued that individual would invest any resource such as land or labor in order to receive the highest return on it. Therefore, usage of resources should yield an equal rate of return. Otherwise, re-allocation should take place. This idea is central proposition to economic development. Using equality of returns, Smith tried to explain the difference in wage rates. Smith claimed that wage rates would be higher for traders, because they had to learn much and they wouldn’t be motivated in getting that job if they weren’t compensated by high wages. Actually, human capital is based on this concept.Also wage rates should be higher for people whose jobs are associated with dirtiness and danger – butchering, coal mining, hangman, etc. they perform odious job and, thus, should be compensated higher.    Briefly speaking, differences in wages rates should be based on differences in work peculiarities. Smith’s theory , for example, in Smith’s fourth book of â€Å"The Wealth of Nations† he â€Å"tells Great Britain that her American colonies are not worth the cost of keeping†. He explained that British imperialism suggested excessively high costs[10].It is known that Adam Smith was against mercantilism stating that the practice of artificial maintenance of trade surplus wouldn’t improve nations’ well-being and would erroneous effort. Smith assumed that the main advantage of trade was that it provided new markets for surplus of goods and services at less cost from abroad. In such a way he launched succession of free trade economists who worked out the concept of comparative advantage (David Ricardo and John Stuart Mill). Adam Smith also realized the role of government in economic performance of the country. He claimed that the government had to enforce grant patents and contracts in order to stimulate emergence of new ides and inventions. Smith also admitted that government should pay attention to public roads and bridges, because it wouldn’t be worthwhile for individuals to provide[11].It is interesting to note that Smith in contrast to other believers, Smith promoted the idea of retaliatory tariffs. He thought it would ensure certain benefits for the country: â€Å"The recovery of a great foreign market will generally more than compensate the transitory inconvenience of paying dearer during a short time for some sorts of goods†[12]. Due to the fact that his economic ideas lasted longer than that of other economists’, Smith is considered alpha and omega of economic and political science. His study was one of the most systematic and comprehensive and his economic ideas are the basis of classical economic theory.BibliographyHenderson, David. (2002). Biography of Adam Smith. Retrieved February 24, 2007, from, Peter. (1997). Adam Smith. Retrieved February 24, 2007, from, Jerry. (1995). Adam Smith in his Time and Ours: Designing the Descent Society. USA: Princeton University Press.Muller, Jerry. (2002). The Mind and the Market: Capitalism in Western Thought. USA: Anchor Books.Teichgraeber, Richard. (1986).   Free Trade and Moral Philosophy: Rethinking the Sources of Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations. USA: Anchor Books.Whybrow, Peter. (2006). Adam Smith’s American Dream: of Desire and Debt. New York: The City University of New York.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Last Of The Mohicans Differents Between The Book And Movie Essays

Last of the Mohicans: Differents Between the Book and Movie The book Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper was very different from the movie Last of the Mohicans in terms of the storyline. However, I feel that the producer and director of this movie did a good job of preserving Cooper's original vision of the classic American man surviving in the wilderness, while possibly presenting it better than the book originally did and in a more believable fashion to a late twentieth century reader. The makers of the movie Last of the Mohicans preserved Cooper's central ideas and themes very well, the most important of which is the question, what makes a man? Very few books that I have read contain such a clear sense of what a man should be as Last of the Mohicans. Cooper portrays the hero, Hawkeye, as brave, independent, and skillful in the ways of the woods. He is a tracker, he can hit a target with a bullet from any distance, he can fight the evil Iroquois Indians without batting so much as an eyelash. The makers of the movie take great pains to preserve these facets of Hawkeye, but then go beyond what Cooper originally laid down as the basis for his hero's character. In the book, Hawkeye displays very little feeling and the reader has very little empathy with him, even though he is the hero. In the movie, however, there is a great romance between Hawkeye and Cora that does not exist in the book. This romance adds a more human side to Hawkeye's character; it show s his caring side beyond all the hero-woodsman qualities--in other words, the non-Rambo, late twentieth century version of a hero. Every hero should have a woman at his side, and the makers of the movie, realizing this, transfer Cora from Uncas' side to Hawkeye's. This I think was a wise choice because it gave the viewer more things in common with the hero and thus made Hawkeye a more human hero and therefore more comprehensible to the late twentieth century viewer. One thing the makers of the movie attempted to keep was the vision portrayed in the book of sweeping landscapes, gigantic trees, dark forests, crashing waterfalls, and other impressive features of nature. This again was a wise choice, seeing as how part of Cooper's vision was the goodness and power of nature. However, once again I think the film presented this facet better than the book did, although this time it was not due to a feature Cooper left out but instead was simply due to the fact that film presents such features in a more vivid, more appealing way than pages of descriptive passage. (This again may be the bias of a late twentieth century viewer/reader, as we are used to having our images presented in a graphic, immediate way, rather than allowing our imaginations to conjure up pictures from the written word.) One thing the makers of the movie left out that was originally in the book was the character of David Gamut, the psalmist. Of all the characters in the book I felt his was best developed by Cooper; almost all of the others were cardboard characters with no depth. Gamut, however, is at the beginning portrayed as anything but a hero He is gawky, doesn't believe in killing other men (even Indians), and is something of what we would today call a nerd. However, he goes through many "trials by fire" and in the end is shaped into Cooper's version of the American man. David Gamut amused me as the story went along and his presence certainly lightened things up compared to the constant sense of foreboding that pervades the book. However, the movie makers sadly left out his character altogether. Though David Gamut was not an important part of Cooper's vision, he still played a part in it. He developed throughout the book from a wimpy coward to one who took up arms in the final battle, placing his life in God's hands and throwing caution to the wind. I cannot see a reason for removing his character other than the producers possibly wishing to remove all semblance of comedy from the movie and thus make it a very serious film. I think this is a stupid reason, because his character added much more to the story than a few jokes, and had I been the director I would have included his character, perhaps even embellished it in the same manner as