Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Could the tragedy of Romeo and Juliet happen today? Essay

The story of the â€Å"star crossed lovers† is a true tragedy as there was so much potential for the relationship to work. The feelings that the couple from â€Å"two houses alike in dignity† were so immense that they ended up dying for each other. If it wasn’t for fate, their dedication would have allowed them to grow old together, and not end up dying at such a young age. Fate is a continuous factor throughout the play and leads to much of the tragedy. A good example of this is the Capulet party. It is quite ironic that Peter, the Capulets servant can’t read the list of people invited to the Capulets party. So he approaches Benvolio. This leads to Mercutio asking Romeo to come with them the party, which happens to be a masked ball, so they would not be identified as Montagues. In Act 1, Scene 4, Romeo says â€Å"some consequence, yet hanging in the stars, shall bitterly begin this fearful date† Even before he had met Juliet, Romeo has predicted that something will start that night of the party but would lead to disaster and heartache- which it eventually does. Perhaps the largest part of that fate plays in the tragedy of Romeo and Juliet is in Act 2, Scene 3, where friar Lawrence is established as a herbalist. This gives him the knowledge to make the concoction that makes Juliet appear dead. If Juliet had not appeared dead, then Romeo would have not have committed suicide. Thus ending with them still alive, but by chance they both had visited Friar Lawrence and not a different religious representative. The relationship between the parents and children makes the suicides truly sad, as Romeo and Juliet were two children who would be missed. Montague and Lady Montague were both concerned for Romeo when he is acting differently because of Rosalyn’s rejection. Lady Montague asks Benvolio, Romeo’s cousin, â€Å"O where is Romeo? † because she is concerned. Montague then goes on to say â€Å"Could we but learn from whence his sorrows grow, we would as willingly give cure as know. † He is basically saying – I would give anything to know what troubles my son, and to make it right. Capulet only wants the best for his daughter and at the beginning of the story Capulet tells Paris, Juliet is too young to marry. â€Å"Earth hath swallowed all my hopes but she. † Meaning, Juliet is Capulets only surviving child. â€Å"She is the hopeful lady of my earth. † He wants things to go right for his much loved daughter. The death of Tybalt causes Capulet to realise life is short and that Juliet should marry Paris to make her secure in life. Juliet refuses Paris as a husband so Capulet threatens to throw Juliet out because she is disgracing Capulet. He says, â€Å"You shall not house with me. † â€Å"And you be not hang, beg, starve, die in the streets! † Although he did not do this to be horrible, he just wanted the best for his daughter and he considered the best to be Paris; a â€Å"lovely gentleman† Juliet appears to have a formal relationship with her mother, Lady Capulet. Juliet has not been raised by her Mother, but by her nurse. There is a lack of emotion between the mother and daughter. Throughout the play there is very little conversation between the two, and Lady Capulet only seems to deliver messages, and do as Capulet tells her. She seems to have no power or place in Juliet’s life. The nurse has raised Juliet and Capulet makes all the important decisions. Juliet’s nurse takes messages between Romeo and Juliet making the relationship easier for them. â€Å"As I told you, my lady bade me inquire you out. † -The nurse speaking to Romeo. When Romeo tells the nurse of the marriage, the nurse replies â€Å"This afternoon sir? Well, she shall be there. † The nurse can travel freely around Verona and suspicions are not raised when she speaks to Romeo, unlike Juliet, who would rarely be allowed out of the Capulets mansion, let alone to speak to a male and a family enemy. Friar Lawrence’s plan to â€Å"Turn your households rancour to pure love. † was a good idea but misguided. If he had refused to marry the couple then perhaps their dedication to each other would not have been so strong. If Benvolio had not persuaded Romeo to come to the party then he would never have seen Juliet and a relationship would not have started. Juliet would probably have ended up marrying Paris and would have found another lover to idolise. Courtly love is a part of both Romeo and Juliet’s lives, although not involved in their relationship together. Romeo at first wishes to court Rosalyn but she is not interested. The love Paris had got for Juliet is courtly. When Paris speaks to Capulet he says, â€Å"Now my lord, what say you to my suit. † and â€Å"Younger than she are happy mothers made. † There is no reference to how much he loves Juliet but that he wants to make Juliet a happy mother. There is no romance between the two. Paris arranged the marriage through Capulet. Juliet appears to have no affection towards Paris, as she barely knows him. After Tybalts Death, the marriage to Paris is forced upon Juliet. When Romeo and Juliet first met there was a fascination between them that continues throughout the entire play, although it is far more obvious at the beginning of the story. When they first met there was lots of flirting and Romeo plays words and refers to â€Å"blushing pilgrims† (his lips) and â€Å"a shrine† (her hands). After this meeting the feelings that they have for each other becomes deeper. â€Å"Juliet is the sun, arise fair sun and kill the envious moon. † Romeo is so in love with Juliet, he is comparing her to the goddess of the moon and saying that Juliet is far more beautiful. â€Å"Two of the fairest stars in all the heaven, having some business, do entreat her eyes. † Again Romeo is comparing her spiritual representations. He is almost saying she is more than human. Juliet is what all mankind look up to with the urge to explore, and yet not quite understanding what is attracting them to her. Romeo’s love soon turns to lust – â€Å"O whilt though leave me so unsatisfied? † (Act 2, Scene 2). Romeo is basically asking Juliet if she is going to make love to him. Her reply is that she will only make love to him if they are married. At this point their relationship enters a new level of commitment, and once married, a more mature relationship is established. Once Romeo is banished foe killing Tybalt, it becomes clear how dedicated Juliet really is. If the plan had gone right, Juliet would have given up her family and security to live with Romeo and to be his wife forever. Upon hearing about Romeo being banished for her cousin’s death, Juliet says, â€Å"I’ll go to my wedding bed, and death, not Romeo, take my maidenhead. † (Act 3, Scene 2) – She would rather die a virgin that night, than live without Romeo. But because the plan went wrong, we see Juliet has all consuming feelings of love for Romeo and their relationship. When discovering Juliet’s â€Å"death†, Romeo asks Balthasar â€Å"Hast thou no letters to me from the friar? † the Friar’s letter had not been delivered to Romeo and so he is unaware that Juliet is just under the Friar’s concoction. However, unaware of the circumstances, Romeo heads back to Juliet. On seeing her body he swears they will live forever and he swallows the poison. â€Å"Seal with a righteous kiss a dateless bargain to engrossing death. † Meaning that he and Juliet will be together forever in death (Act 5, Scene 3). When Juliet awakes she is shocked to see Romeo’s dead body lying next to her. She cannot live without Romeo so she stabs herself with Romeo’s dagger and as she does so she says, â€Å"O happy dagger! This is thy sheath; there rest and let me die! † She would rather be dead than live without her one true love. The tragedy of Romeo and Juliet could still happen in today’s society as the amount of control that Capulet had over Juliet still exists today although perhaps not to such a high degree. It could cause a teenager to rebel against their parents and go with the person their parents would disapprove of most. Juliet has quite a remote and emotionless relationship with her mother and a girl today may well seek the attention and â€Å"love† of an older male to replace the affection that she doesn’t receive at home. People today still have arranged marriages, either as a part of religion or tradition. If they could not support themselves without their parents, then they may marry so they don’t end up on the streets. There are still people committing suicide because of â€Å"love†. Some people can be so deeply in love that they are willing to die if their partner died because they see no point in living without them. Friends loyalties are, generally, to their friends and not to their parents. This could lead to messages and rumours being passed between the two partners form their friends. Also Love at first sight is not a common occurrence but it does happen. There are factors though, that makes the tragedy of Romeo and Juliet happening in today very unrealistic. In today’s society, children would not necessarily have to marry someone they don’t want to. Most parents don’t want their children to rush into marriage at that age. Parents today are more comfortable with their children â€Å"dating† and family feuds still occur but are far less common. Marriage is no longer a lifetime commitment. Divorce is a common practise between couples who no longer want to be together for whatever reason. This means there is no real reason to commit suicide to escape a relationship you don’t want to be in. Several of the key events, which make Romeo and Juliet a true tragedy, come back down to fate. It would be extremely difficult, or nearly impossible to find a drug that would make you appear dead. Even if you could, communication is much easier now than it was in Shakespeare’s time and an e-mail, phone call or text message could have been sent instead. Also it is now quite rare to find someone who can’t read. This would mean that the party would not have been known. But this is today so the news of someone having a party would not stay a secret for long and the word would spread quickly. I personally believe that the tragedy of Romeo and Juliet could still happen in today’s society but it would not be on the same scale as the story of Romeo and Juliet.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Definition Essay †A Good Friend Essay

When I asked Google to define a friend it gave me 82,300,000 related results, but when I asked the definition of a good friend it only showed 47,000,000 results. This proved how people tend to have more challenges in characterizing what a good friend is, probably because it is harder to find one. Generally, a friend is described as a person whom one knows and with whom one has a bond of mutual affection, typically exclusive of sexual or family relations. Almost every single one of us will immediately nod in agreement to this definition and explain how your good friend never fails to make you smile. They are the ones who support every action you made, every word you said, and every decision you take. As stated above, a good friend is something scarce since they are more than just a friend, but do they necessarily have to be someone who never disagrees? In my own opinion a good friend dishes out hard truths, has your best interest at heart, and will not hesitate to be a villain when required. Yes, they are not your family members corresponding to our common understanding, but they will act like ones. A good friend will act like your father. Try to remember those days when anything is possible but to see eye to eye with your father. When your father was sick and preferred going for alternative medication but you tried to convince him that what he need is to see a doctor. Not to mention smaller disagreements, for instance when your father said that he was going to take the express way, you said it would be better to take the regular road. Arguments with our fathers are inevitable, it happens regularly because both of us think we know better than the other. However, we often forgot the real reason for our arguments; it is because we want the best for each other. Similar cases will most likely occur with our good friends too, not as numerous but nevertheless it happens. There are moments when we make stupid decisions and we need someone who knows we are settling for something less than what we deserved to advise us. At the end of the day, a good friend will never leave or forsake you despite all the arguments you both had, again just like your father. A good friend will act like your mother. Our mothers are the most genuine and honest women in our life. They dare to unmask all the concealed pain, although she alone will take the consequences of being hated by doing something out of love. She will look you straight in the eye and said your boyfriend is not being faithful despite the fact that she had only met him twice. She know you that well that she can tell her beloved child is denying reality just because she did not want to be broken hearted. You will hate her that much for dragging you out of the fantasy you have been living, but eventually you will thank her for that. For me, a good friend will do exactly the same. When they disclose an ugly truth that everyone kept secret from you with reasons to protect you, they will unveil it slowly and let you be broken. It is a tough love undoubtedly, but they did it because they care and it is better for them to be hated now rather than to let someone slap you on the face with that ugly truth in the future. However, they will not let you burn to the ground. They will help you to stand back up and move on when you are ready to be helped, like how your mother will tolerate your continuous crying, falling grades, and will even bake your favorite cake to nurse your broken heart. A good friend will act the way your sibling does. You jumped over the fence, broke the windows, covered up for each other, and got grounded together. Both of you will stay in one room and keep quiet while trying to hold your tears from bursting when your parents were fighting. Those memories of what you had been through together are priceless. Nonetheless, there are also days when your big brother or sister brought back their date, you are happy for them but suddenly you became invisible. You tried to distract them and grabbed their attention back but it ended up in a nasty fight. This is how a good friend will react despite every effort they make to be happy for you. I will be jealous when one of my good friends is getting along with a new friend of hers, or when she finally found the love of her life. We will end up fighting for not being able to spare time and listen to each other’s problems but ultimately we will always forgive each other because the fight is not worth losing our relationship. Thus for me, a true friendship will not be a ride somewhere over the rainbow where every day is sunny and happy is all you will ever be. Troubles will not melt like lemon drops and identical to family relationship it will have its own ups and downs. They will act like your father because they want the absolute best for you. They will act like your mother because they care too much to worry about being hated by you for doing the right thing. They will act like your siblings and be anxious about losing their loved one. Undeniably, some of you do not have a good relationship with your family, and friends are your refuge. You definitely do not need them to behave the way your family does, but I need to warn you that those friends are not friends for a lifetime. The truth is, if they really care for you and want you to be happy, they will make you understand how important it is to love your family no matter how damaged it is. Therefore, I believe, and you should too, that a good friend who treats you as their family is a best friend. Nicoline Djohan ( 1,038 words) View as multi-pages

Monday, July 29, 2019

Marketing Mix and Consumer Behavior Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Marketing Mix and Consumer Behavior - Essay Example Today the entire world is considered as markets by the marketers who are involved in global trade. Participating in the global trade has become a growing trend of today’s business scenario since global trade comes with the opportunities of competitive advantage and access to a wider market that provides the marketers, ample scope to grow and develop. Thus in this context, when a marketer wishes to grow and prosper then it’s necessary for him/her to consider the entire world as their consumer. This is true for products as well as services. The report at hand focuses on the marketing mix of a brand and the means through which the brand convinces and satisfies its customers. One such brand with a global presence is BiCE. BiCE is a group of restaurants with Italian origin that was started during 1926. Today the group has its presence in the places like North America, South America, Asia, Middle East, Europe and Africa (BiCE, 2013). The marketing mixes at each of these place s are different. Since it’s not possible to discuss BiCE’s marketing mix in the context of all the places, therefore the present report will be focusing on BiCE Abu Dhabi, UAE. However before discussing the marketing mix of the restaurant it is necessary to discuss the market condition of the place where the restaurant is operating presently. Marketing Mix Product- BiCE offers a complete Italian familiarity to its customers. Italian rock music is played by a group of musician in the lounge area so bring out the essence of Italy. The adjacent places of the restaurant remain well-decorated by terracotta idols and Etruscan bronze structures. The wide array of delicacies consist of a broad gamut of cuisines starting from appetizers like gamberi, zucchine e carciof, Fritto di calamari, Carpaccio like Carpaccio di aragosta con composta di mango piccanto e salsina al caviale, soup like Zuppa di orzo e gamberi, Risotto like ai funghi Porcini, salad like Insalata Cesare con cro stini all’aglio, pasta like Penne all’arrabbiata, Main Course like Filetto di tonno rosso, in crosta di sesamo con caponata Siciliana, and Side orders like Sauteed spinach- Sauteed mushrooms - Steamed vegetables, Grilled vegetables - Mash potato - Grilled asparagus - Grilled asparagus and Mixed salads. Along with offering superb Italian cuisines the restaurant also comes with accommodation facilities. But the lodging service is only accessible during the peak seasons of the year when maximum number of tourists visit the country for spending their holidays and shopping (Jumeirah, n.d.). BiCE mainly focuses on rendering a diverse array of food menus to meet the tastes and food demands of people pertaining to various nations pertaining to China, Thailand, Arabic, and other European countries like Germany and France. Similarly the restaurant also tends to meet the varying eating needs of other expatriate population coming from United Kingdom and United States to United Ara b Emirates. The cuisines are served in packages that come with separate sauces, salads and other non alcoholic beverage drinks and also of alcoholic drinks like wine and others. Moreover the restaurant also focuses on encouraging the people to enjoy their socializing activities through helping them savor on the food and drink products in an eat-out zone with adequate seats attached for gossiping. In addition the availability of a Wi-Fi facility further works toward meeting the requirements of the expatriate

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Choose the right topic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Choose the right topic - Essay Example This change shifted focus from machine productivity to employee productivity, which in result developed the organizational management concept. The core of the organizational management concept is to find the best possible way for employees to mange their tasks. This concept is true for both production and service related organizations. Among many different aspects of organizational management, the compelling one is that refers to the art of getting people together on a common platform to make them work towards a common predefined goal (â€Å"Organization Management†). All organizational management aspects refer to four major theories of organizations and management, namely: classical theory, human relation theory, contingency theory, and modern system theory (â€Å"The nature of Organizational Theory’). Each of these theories is based on some assumptions supported by certain elements. The insights of the above selected aspect of organizational management should be view ed through the classifications of these theories. The classical theory is based on the assumptions that scientific analysis of organizational problems brings improvement, and a good worker is who accepts the order. The human relation theory also defined as neoclassical is based on the following assumptions (â€Å"The nature of Organizational Theory†) · The organization can be defined as "a group of persons with a common objective," The psychological and social aspects of the worker as an individual and work group ought to be emphasized, If we fuse the assumptions of classical and neoclassical theories, we get the core philosophical concept of the insight of above-mentioned aspect of organizational management. The concept describes that an organization consists of the group of individuals with a common purpose; the mangers on behalf organization must pay attention to the psychological and social aspects of employees; improvement of organizational problems should be scientifi cally resolved, and good workers accept orders. In the above explanation, we observe, on one hand, organizations’ position toward the employees, on the other hand, employee’s attitude towards the organization in fulfilling the organization’s goal. Once the core philosophical concepts are determined, it then remains to identify the method on how to implement the concept in reality. This perhaps can be achieved through the practical application of the supporting elements of classical and neo classical theories’ assumptions. The neoclassical theory’s supporting elements are individual employee motivation and consideration of social aspects of the employees. The classical theory’s supporting elements are principles of management and functions of management. The principles of management element include numerous parameters, of them important to mention are Division of work, Authority and Responsibility, Discipline, Unity of command, Unity of direc tion, Subordination to general interest, Remuneration, and equality. The functional management element is probably the key element of organizational management. Its parameters are planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling. Once fused all parameters of the above described elements we can formulate the procedure required for the implementation of the insights of the compelling aspect of organiz

Saturday, July 27, 2019

TB Skin Testing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

TB Skin Testing - Essay Example Potential high risk employees include emergency department personnel, respiratory therapists, microbiology laboratory workers, and pathologists, specialists in pulmonary medicine and nurses in some settings (McGowan, 1983; CDCP 1995). It is imperative to control TB and for this every health-care setting should have a TB infection-control plan. It is crucial because it depends on whether patients with assumed or established TB disease might come across in the setting or whether patients with suspected or confirmed TB disease will be transferred to another health-care setting. The TB infection-control program must encompass administrative controls, environmental controls, and a respiratory-protection program. These are the important control parameters as every location in which services are offered to individuals who have suspected or confirmed infectious TB disease, counting the hospital settings, should have a TB infection-control plan. The following methods must be adopted for TB infection-control program in HCWs settings: 1. ... These are the important control parameters as every location in which services are offered to individuals who have suspected or confirmed infectious TB disease, counting the hospital settings, should have a TB infection-control plan. The following methods must be adopted for TB infection-control program in HCWs settings: 1. Supervisory responsibility is essential for the TB infection-control program and this should be given to the authorized person deputed for the same. The supervisor must be supported to carry out the risk assessment for tuberculosis. HCWs must be educated to take the required training and ensure their actions in the direction of disease control. 2. Proper training is required to perform and enforce the TB infection-control program. 3. Atleast one person be designated to whom the problems must be addressed. 4. A protocol must be developed to get a TB infection-control plan and must be updated annually. 5. The problem must be evaluated and prompt recognition be made. 6. A contact investigation must be made in co-ordination with the local or state health department. 7. Implement and maintain environmental controls, including airborne infection isolation (AII) room(s) (see Supplement, "Environmental Controls" in the original guideline document). 8. Respiratory-protection program must be applied. 9. Constant training programme must be done to keep the HCWs updated and well-informed. (NGC Recommendations) Significance: It is very imperative to understand the implications of TB and therefore considering the repercussions of the infection, PPD skin test is arranged on a routine basis. It is the prime responsibility to the HCWs to keep a check of their records when to undergo PPD skin test. The best method to remember this is through the

Friday, July 26, 2019

Contingency Leadership Theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Contingency Leadership Theory - Essay Example How workers feel about their jobs depends partly on the compatibility of job requirements with their personal attributes acquired even before they came to the organization. The complexity lies in the wide differences among individuals and their orientation. Arguably, individuals adjust to their jobs over time, but this is tempered by organizational complexities that may negatively rather than positively induce job satisfaction and productivity. The present globalized environment dominated by multinationals introduces many other external elements not considered by Shepard and Hougland. Contingency theory provides an excuse for poor performance by citing supposedly unforeseeable risks (Noor & Tichacek, 2009). Multinational corporations also call for the global leader to consider cultural disparities in conducting international business operations (Shin, Heath & Lee, 2011). Greater employee expectations also call for the leader to be charismatic and accommodating (Kirkhaug, 2010) at the risk of virtual mutiny. Adding to the complexity is the clamour to develop a contingency model of governance (Ansell & Gash (2008) in compliance with corporate social responsibility demands. These developments increase the uncertainties faced by the organizational leaders who are increasingly called to render judgment calls to meet progressively more complex situations (Tichy & Bennis, 2007). These numerous and sometimes conflicting expectations that make contingency leadership difficult but at the same time necessary. They also make an objective assessment of leadership effectiveness that much more untenable. Â  

The Chronicle Gazette Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

The Chronicle Gazette - Term Paper Example This newspaper agency is going through a tough phase with diminishing revenues. Both advertising and subscription revenues are decreasing. The main cause of this downturn is that readers are now using Internet to receive all the news content for free. This advancement has increased reluctance in people to pay for newspapers now. Global recession has also obligated people to go for internet and free news instead of newspapers. It has distanced the customers from the traditional system of newspapers and also the increase in price of newspapers. The publishing costs have increased and majority of newspapers have increased their prices too. Today, online newspaper websites have gained popularity among different people (The New Times Company, 2010). The main aim of this report is to offer the management of The Chronicle Gazette a strategic vision of where the newspaper publishing industry stands today and where it is headed over the next decade. Also, this report proposes strategies the newspaper can investigate to survive in the new business environment. It also analyzes the details of this company’s present and future performance. It also gives facts on factors which cause the turn down of this industry. The trends in newspaper industry are also analyzed with regard to strategies that leading companies of the industry follow. This report will also give details about the measures that different companies adapt to beat the losses of the industry. It will also offer details about the measures that most companies adapt to eschew the losses encountered. By considering the external and internal factors affecting industry and also the publishers, the report will give measures that The Chronicle Gazette should adapt to increase its revenues and customer base (The New Times Company, 2010). 2. State of the newspaper publishing industry today 2.1. Data on declining circulation and revenues The state of national economy is one of the basic drivers of industry of US newspaper. The economy has a distinct impact on both the circulation and advertising; Most of the costs that companies face are fixed. As a consequence, the profitability is achieved by marketing and sales. The companies need to be innovative and strategic in their market strategy to enhance the circulation and to increase profits. The bigger companies take the advantage of the economies of scale as they used variety of sources in publishing newspapers (Hoover’s Inc., 2010). The past few years have witnessed a decline in newspaper readership. More and more people are now using Internet so that they can view online and read for free. The innovations in Internet have given people the opportunity to log in and receive information twenty four ho urs a day. This news content is also available in genuine time and it is available everywhere all around the world all the time. Most of these news providers don’t even charge a fee. A result of this is numerous readers are not willing to pay for news content now and has an enormous impact on newspapers’ sales (Honnold, 2000). A huge reduction has been seen in the total number of newspaper in circulation in United States over a period of ten years. The number of newspapers circulated in 2000 was 115, 194,000 and now this number has been reduced to 97, 712, 000 in the year 2008. At the same time, the revenues of advertising have gone down during the past few years. The revenues have declined from $48,670 in 2000 to only $24,821 in the year 2009 as reported by Newspaper Association of America. The past decade has shown a constant downturn in profits and revenues for publishers of newspapers. This

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Law v.s. Opinion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Law v.s. Opinion - Essay Example Born on August 1, of 1930, he recently passed away on January 23, 2002. His views embody the disciplines of many tenets including: philosophy, literary theory, sociology, and anthropology. He is the protagonist of the world of sociological studies, and he opposed and debunked some of the most prevalent antagonisms in the genre. His most popular work is Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste. In the 1967 study, he interprets how members of the upper class define taste as an aesthetic. He finds that the public has no genuine representation in democratic societies. Pierre Bourdieu asserts that public opinion does not exist. This poses the question, how should we conceive public opinion If it is true that the public does not exist, than the real question is, whose opinion is public opinion Rational Choice Theory poses that idea that human beings form their opinions and decisions based on collective observations and calculations. It also assumes all individuals are well informed of all of their options and that it is an inherent human tendency to think everyone makes decisions this way. If this is true, it would explain the blind faith people have in public opinion. It is a faith so devout, it often sways and molds popular culture ideals. Pierre Bourdieu strongly negates this view. According to his perspective, if there is no public opinion then, the courts judge based entirely according to the law, and their own personal judgment, which we perceive in compliance with an imaginary public. The constitution ends up having a very significant say in the lives of the people. This forces us to look at its core creation by the Federalists and the government that has grown to live by it. The government we have today has come a long way since it's creation by the Founding Fathers. With the new disappointments arising towards the current administration, many have begun to question and asses the purpose of the constitution structured by the Founding Fathers and how it still applies to us today. Some go so far as to suggest that the federalists who framed the constitution insisted on limited federal involvement, but the history of America shows this is not the case. The Federalists protested limited government, while secretly creating a constitution that might one day form into an all powerful force. In fact, history shows that every official in any given office usually tends to take actions to increase the power of the government, whether state or federal, regardless of party classification. This is a formula specifically structured to maintain a minority class of wealthy elite to rule over the majority. The only difference between then and now is technological advancem ent and experience in the elitist control of the masses. If it were not for the presence of these traits in American society, there would be no real physical change to analyze. In a sense, nothing has really changed; money is still as much the emperor of our nation now, as it was then. Until the twentieth century both scholars and the public revered the Framers as demigods and canonized the Constitution as the crowning symbol of a democratic revolution against tyranny. However, the many publicized political and corporate scandals of the Progressive Era in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries influenced historians to begin viewing the Constitutional

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Art and Knowledge Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Art and Knowledge - Essay Example This positive tradition which follows the western philosophical thoughts loves to believe that art is largely emotive rather than informative. To illustrate, according to people like Ayer (1952, p.54), the sources of empirical knowledge should be synthetic propositions the truth value of which can be determined. In addition, logical relationships should be derived from analytic propositions which are open to manipulation (ibid). Does art provide knowledge? The historical discussion Admittedly, this traditional belief that art has nothing to do with epistemology arose from the fact that arts are mainly aimed at arousing emotion. In fact, people seek out arts mainly to get oneself lost into the imaginary world created by the arts. Thus, one can easily point out that arts are primarily meant to reach a natural high which is often the result of ones sensory responses. Thus, traditionally, arts and sensory experiences were interlinked and inseparable. Thus, Plato (1992, p. 113) argued tha t the sensory side of human experience is primary in the arts. According to Stolnitz (1992, p. 191), the argument is that senses are a hindrance to the achievement of the high state in which reality can be understood. In fact, the weights and chains of the prisoners incarcerated in Plato’s caves were really surrogates or proxies for the distractions that our senses imposed upon whatever our rational mind could possibly muster. Thus, one can see that the stimulation of senses, which takes place through arts, is rather misleading. As John (2001, p.330) reflects, instead of making one reach critical thinking and rationality, arts lead one away from truth which can only be derived through critical rationality. And as time passed, there arose two extremes in the cognitive triviality of arts (ibid). The opinion of Plato was contradicted by Aristotle (2008, p. 45) in Poetics through the argument that poetry is capable of conveying the knowledge of universals to people. Thus, there a rise two classes of thought; one that believes in the aesthetic value of art, and one that believes in the cognitive value of art. Admittedly, it is possible to develop a third class of thought; that is, aesthetic cognitivism. This class of thought claims that art can give knowledge, and also that this knowledge can enhance the aesthetic value of art. According to cognitivists, it is possible for art to impart knowledge. In order to substantiate their claim, cognitivists rely on philosophical knowledge as derived from various works of literature. The gist of their argument is that though moral philosophy manages to provide an outline of what is good; works of literature are useful and at times necessary to understand the application of the same in various situations. As McKeon (2001, p.241) comments, Aristotle comes up with three types of knowledge; theoretical, practical, and productive. The theoretical knowledge refers to the knowledge about things that are fundamental in nature ( ibid). An example of this knowledge is the products and processes of nature. Practical knowledge refers to the knowledge that teaches what to do to address certain contingencies. Thirdly, productive knowledge teaches one how to make new things. Admittedly, the question arises as to how art can introduce productive knowledge. Thus, one gains the insight that the meaning of the word ‘knowledge’ itself is likely to change according to the nature of the problem one pursues (ibid). Based on the traditional view of scientific knowledge, knowledge is supposed to come along with evidence regarding the truth. In other words, knowledge is the ability to provide warranted assertions. In other words, the term ‘

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Why poverty was re-discovered in Britain in the late 1950s and early Essay

Why poverty was re-discovered in Britain in the late 1950s and early 1960 - Essay Example Britain’s share of world trade fell from 13.9% to 10.8% during this time. Taxation increased from 32% of GDP to 43% of GDP. Economic planning had failed and this failure precluded major social planning despite the fact that some social reforms such as the launch of comprehensive education, reorganization of public transport, development in health and local government. Abel-Smith and Townsend are credited with the "rediscovery of poverty" in the 1960’s: noticed that certain categories such as, families with children on low incomes and retired couples often lived in difficult circumstances. The definition of poverty adopted by Abel-Smith and Peter Townsend in their 1965 study, was the concept of â€Å"The Poor and the Poorest†. They concluded that "poverty was entirely a relative concept," and defined households to be in, or at the margins of, poverty if their income was less than "140 percent of the then current National Assistance scale plus rent". In 1960, 17.9% of households lived below this relative poverty standard. An unknown, but significantly smaller, share of the population had incomes below the "physical efficiency" or "human needs" poverty lines. (Ian Gazeley, Poverty in Britain 1900-1965) There was a strong case for saying that socially deprived families are frequently found in confined geographical areas identifiable by certain physical and social characteristics. Examples of these characteristics: geographical location, "twilight zones" near a city’s business area; areas populated by immigrants; overcrowded and poor amenities, Victorian housing stock; areas with a high percentage of unskilled and semi-skilled workers; higher than average proportions of families on State benefits; higher than normal percentage of large families; large number of fatherless families; areas with little play space and recreational facilities; areas with poorer health; high percentage of child deprivation and delinquency.

Monday, July 22, 2019

Negative Body Image Essay Example for Free

Negative Body Image Essay A study showed that women experience an average of 13 negative thoughts about their body each day, while 97% of women admit to having at least one â€Å"I hate my body† moment each day (raderprograms). Teens today are faced with many pressures: how they dress, who their friends are, who they are going to date, and most importantly, what they look like. In today’s society, body image is more than just the mental picture a person has of what their body looks like. For many, body image is also a reflection of how they feel about themselves and their lives. People with a negative body image believe that if they do not look right, other things, such as their personality, intelligence, social skills, or capabilities, also are not right. They think that if they fix their bodies, all their other problems will disappear. This can result in unhealthy weight management practices and an unhealthy relationship with food. People excessively diet and exercise out of fear of gaining weight. The media today portrays stick thin women with beautiful faces and size 0 bodies, but the truth is, the majority of runway models meet the Body Mass Index (BMI) criteria to be considered anorexic (raderprograms). When influenced by role models like these, teenagers start to feel inferior if they do not look the same. In turn, when put under the pressure of women in the media, teenagers will most likely develop a negative body image, eating or mood disorder, or other unhealthy addictions if they feel their bodies do not â€Å"measure up† to those of women portrayed. Negative body image is a serious issue that can be greatly influenced by today’s media. Body image refers to a person’s feelings about how attractive their body is. Celebrities like Kate Moss are 30+% under their ideal body weight, along with this, adolescent girls are more afraid of gaining weight than getting cancer, losing their parents, or nuclear war (raderprograms). Research has shown that media exposure to unattainable physical perfection is detrimental to people, especially women, and that the detrimental effects are currently more the rule than the exception (An Intervention for the Negative Influence on Body Esteem 405-418). Negative body image affects all aspects (physical, mental, social, and spiritual) of the body negatively and cause problems like depression, anxiety and social anxiety. Roughly half of the women in the U. S. wear size 14 or larger though most standard clothing retailers only cater to size 14 and smaller (raderprograms). Having a negative body image can be detrimental to a person’s self-esteem; they will always scrutinize themselves in mirrors and be envious to other’s bodies, whether it is celebrities, friends or even complete strangers. Many people with a negative body image will start to diet to control their weight and get it to where they want it to be. At any given time, one in every three women and one in any four men are on a diet (raderprograms). People diet to be thinner and more attractive, to look like people they see in the media. A People magazine survey showed that 80% of female takers felt that women in movies and television programs made them feel insecure about their bodies (raderprograms). The media is very negative towards people who are not as small as models and (most) actresses. The average U. S. model weighs 117 lbs and is 5’11†, while the average U. S. woman weighs 140 lbs and is 5’4† (raderprograms). The media also is a very strong advocate of dieting and especially diet pills. While dieting can be done healthily, some teenagers abuse dieting; 73% of teenage girls who abuse diet pills and 79% of teenage girls who self-purge (the act of forcibly making themselves vomit or abusing laxatives to not absorb calories) frequently read women’s fitness and health magazines (raderprograms). People who diet have an increased amount of depression due to body image and not getting the results they expect. Thirty-five percent of â€Å"occasional dieters† progress into pathological dieting (disordered eating) and as many as 25% advance to full blown eating disorders (raderprograms). Medical researchers believe that 80 percent of all eating disorders started with a diet (The Causes of Negative Body Image). Media causes teens to feel insecure and have low self-esteem. It is one of the leading causes of Eating Disorders in the United States. Eating Disorders affect 10+ million females and 1+ million males (raderprograms). Many teens suffer from eating disorders and it majorly affects a person’s life. â€Å"When you have an eating disorder at a young age, you can’t shake it easily. I’ve suffered with anorexia and bulimia since I was 12 years old, along with severe depression and anxiety disorders. It was largely influenced by the media and the pressure to be thin. You’re always pre-occupied with the voices telling you not to eat this, or not to eat that because you want to be thin, right? It’s always there and it’s hard. You know what you’re doing is wrong, but man does it feel so right. † (Billstein). For females between the ages 15-24 who suffer from anorexia, the mortality rate associated with the illness is twelve times higher than he death rate of ALL other causes of death (raderprograms). When a person develops an eating disorder they may also become addicted to exercise along with restricting calories. Exercise addiction is maladaptive, causing more harm than benefits. People become addicted to exercise in order to be thinner. This is usually paired with an eating disorder or negative body image. A person will exe rcise and burn off every calorie that they have consumed during the day and run their calorie count into the negatives so they do not absorb any calories at all. â€Å"I feel in control of my body when I exercise. I can see exactly how many calories I have burnt out of my body; being able to burn the small amount of calories that I have managed to eat just feels good. † (Billstein). About 10% of gym users have exercise addiction. Another disorder that ties in with eating disorders is Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD). BDD is â€Å"imagined ugliness†, where a person picks apart everything about themselves until their self-esteem is very low, making them susceptible to mood disorders. It is the gateway drug to eating disorders and negative body image, depression, anxiety and other altered mood disorders. 0% of people diagnosed with eating disorders also suffer from BDD. â€Å"When I look at myself in the mirror, I don’t see what other people see. I see a girl with a large forehead, big thighs, a fat stomach and beady little eyes. I hate my body so much that what I see is totally transformed and disgusting. I don’t want to look like this, that’s why I resorted to o ther things that I could control: eating and how much. † (Billstein). When a person has depression, anxiety, eating disorders or other altered mood disorders they may become addicted to unhealthy activities. An unhealthy addiction that many people, teenagers primarily, form is self-harm. It has many names: self-injury, self-injurious behavior, self-abuse, self-cutting, and repetitive self-harm syndrome. It is most often called self-mutilation. Regardless of what name a person uses, it is the intentional destruction or alteration of one’s own body tissue without conscious suicidal intent (How Negative Body Image Affects the Body and Mind). Self-harm consists of any bodily injury whether it be cutting, burning, scratching, picking or preventing the healing of wounds. Individuals self-harm to release pain. Some people say they self-mutilate because they are emotionally numb and it helps them feel something. When cutting, the person feels in control of the pain, while on the inside, they cannot control mental pain from disorders or depression. Those who cut feel a relief afterwards but it gets more intense of an addiction the longer it goes. They experience strong cravings to harm themselves and withdrawals when in recovery. â€Å"I cut because I can control it. I’m not saying that it’s a good thing, but I’m in recovery and I have relapsed. It takes control of your mind; you’re in a sad state when you take that blade to your skin. You have the scars forever to remember the times you’ve been through, but they show strength not weakness. They’re battle scars and they show that you’ve conquered, not been defeated, you’re still alive and here, and that’s beautiful. † (Billstein). 90% of self-injury individuals begin harming themselves during their teen years or younger. (Cutting: Self Injury Facts amp; Statistics). Only 4% of women in the world truly think they are beautiful (raderprograms). There are some positive body image influences in the media including Dove skincare. They have the ‘Real Beauty’ campaign showing moderate to plus size models in a positive atmosphere. There is a drastic difference between Dove’s ‘Real Beauty’ campaign (Figure 1) and Victoria’s Secret’s new ‘Love My Body’ campaign (Figure 2). Some forms of media are only positive to a certain weight group (i. e: ‘Love My Body’ campaign). Women should not be ashamed of their bodies, they should embrace them and show off their best features. â€Å"You’re going to be in this body for the rest of your life, so you might as well learn to like it† (Billstein). Figure 1 (Rana). Figure 2 (McDonell-Parry). Overall, negative body image is a very dangerous issue to have because it can lead to destructive behaviors like eating disorders, low self-esteem, mood disorders, exercise addiction and other unsafe body disorders. When teenagers are put under the pressure of women in the media, they are at a higher risk of developing a negative body image, eating or mood disorders and other unsafe addictions if their bodies are not as slim.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Applications of Technology in Education

Applications of Technology in Education TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION Lahore: There is an increasing demand in the country for people who corner the market of sound knowledge of technology to solve the critical problems of technical sphere. This fast growing demand has led to the creation of a number of colleges, departments and universities’ catering in this discipline by providing a specialized and structured degree program of technology based studies as this technical education is indispensable in the presence of current wake of revolutions being made up in the technical world, said by Ajmal Hussain Shah, Principal of Government College Technology, here on Saturday. He further elaborated that the future career of students after ten years of schooling mainly depends upon the marks obtained by them in the matriculation examination. Fifty to sixty percent of the top merit students prefer to get admission in FSc to start their career as engineer and doctor. Among them hardly ten percent of students can get admission in professional studies i.e. engineering universities due to limited number of seats. The rest of eager students go for admission in private sector universities which mainly depends upon their affordability as the education in private sector universities is very expensive. But the percentage is changed in the last two years as now the students prefer to be technology specialist and so they want to get admission in information technology and other degrees related to this field. The present conditions of Pakistan when its ideological and territorial boundaries are at harm, demanded some progress in agriculture and industrial areas but the recent years and revolutions have proved that the more a country is strong in technology the more it has chance to flourish. The need of the hour is to develop technical mind and skills so we can keep pace with the modern world. He argued that the students of Pakistan need to study technology because the world if moving fast is this aspect as now the US is trying to develop hypersonic aircraft and is funding Defense Advanced Research Project Agency. These aircrafts are so fast that they can reach any location on earth within an hour and circle the earth at the equator within two hours. Moreover, the US (NASA) has also launched spacecraft Juno to probe Jupiter and in 2016 it will spend one year in a polar orbit around Jupiter and will send back the information about Jupiter’s magnetic and gravitational field. It will then sort out the valuable information about the planets formed from a molecular cloud about 4.6 billion years ago. Although the Principal didn’t elaborate on â€Å"Government’s effort in the field of technology† but he shed light on the government that it has made amendments in the education system and they are worthy but still the country and its technology need much more attention. In situations where the world has made flying robots and K computers, Pakistan has yet to do a lot in the technology field for which the growing technical institutions and education system play a vital role. It does need high capital, skilled technicians and professional people to teach and perform experiments to enhance this field. Taking the challenge to make Pakistan a technically establish country is big but it will lead this country to an established economy. The information technology instructor Nazrul Islam, Government College Technology, touched upon the importance of IT in education by saying that the computer world is ready to engulf us in software heaven. Some are eager to be dependent upon anything and everything while a few remain hesitant. They are afraid of this cyber world with its new, virtual reality and take it to be the faint and fleeting colours of man’s imagination. Who knows one of these days a solution will be found to all our socio-economic problems. May be we would take heed and save mankind from annihilation. It is this that encourages us at the threshold of our new lives. He further explained that with the digital computer at the crux of these technical revolutions, the internet and the World Wide Web are among the primary drivers and the present youth is in the aura of these advancements. â€Å"what has made the big difference in recent years is not the fact that individuals computers have dramatically improved in their capabilities, but that all those information islands are being connected by digital highways made possible through the use of telecommunications infrastructure by computers, which largely explains why the internet and the WWW have begun to play such a significant role in our use of computers†. He argued that information technology is affecting us as teachers, as individuals and as a society. Our options for education, entertainment, working and a variety of things that we do in our daily lives relating to government and society are radically changing due to developments in information technology. Today, when watching TV or reading a newspaper or magazine, it is impossible to miss coverage on seemingly diverse topics related to information technology- internet, World Wide Web, digital TV, online learning, corporate restructuring, wireless communication, tele-medicine and so on. All these innovation and changes may seem disconnected, yet they all share a common denominator, computers and information technology. The adjustments that we are observing and also experiencing are neither irrelevant nor insignificant. They may be as large as those due to the industrial revolution of the 1800’s, when changes in industrial operations moved people away from agriculture and vill age life onto cities and urban life. This is the information revolution. He justified his argument about technical education by saying that Fujitsu has scored first place in International Supercomputing Conference by achieving a stunning speed of 8.162 petaflops, leaving others lying in dust. The system employed 68,544 CPUs to achieve an incredible 93% computer efficiency. So if we want to be apparent in the modern world we need to have the knowledge of every kind of technology and its possible only when we are educated in this field so which these days the colleges and universities are playing the major role. An educated person knows that in coming years the person with knowledge of technology will be successful because it’s the skill that enables one to understand the present world revolutions. He concluded the discussion by explaining that But one cannot underestimate the fact that new millennium may not be all glory and greatness. In the past, man has developed, progressed and triumphed. But to some extent this has gone to his head, and he is blinded by the luster of success and power. It’s like taking one step forward and one backward. At one moment we hail the victories of man, at another, we wail the same achievements, crippling nature and his own survival. The future, with its surprises and mysteries is opening new doors for us. In the coming years, we may look for untouched frontiers. This technological era may try to plunder other planets far off galaxies. This technology is something quaint and who knows canoeing on the crests and troughs of time, it might find the light, the knowledge and the sense of balance. Then it might transform this world into a safe, glorious place with a bright, singing reign of peace and happiness.

City of God Analysis

City of God Analysis The films studied for this essay City of God (2002) and Favela Rising (2006) have taken favelas from the marginality of Brazilian society and transported them into the consciousness of the international public. Favelas have become a cultural icon of Rio de Janeiro, as famous as the postcard images of Copacabana beach and the statue of Christ the Redeemer on Corcovado mountain. Since 1992 tourists have been able to sign up for â€Å"favelatourâ€Å" and see first hand the favela of Rocinha via one of the multiple tourism agencies competing for business in what has become one of Rios most popular tours. [1] City of God Fernando Meirelles film City of God (2002) is based on the Brazilian novel of the same name by Paulo Lins (1996). City of God (Cidade de Deus) is the name of the favela where Lins grew up, and the novel is based on a true story taken from interviews and research conducted by Lins in the favela over a period of 8 years regarding the state of drug trafficking and gang warfare. The film has attracted much critical acclaim due to its confrontation of the issues within the favela as well as the gritty realism with which it was shot and unabashed depiction of violence within the favela. The film is narrated by one of two central characters, Rocket, and tells the story of the lives of himself and Lil Ze, children who grew up in the Cidade de Deus in similar circumstances yet who chose separate pathways in life. In the film the character Rocket symbolises hope, as he dreams of becoming a photographer, and this is used as a vehicle within the film to portray imagery of the favela to both the media in Rio de Janeiro within the story, and to the viewer. Lil Ze is a child with the taste for crime that grows up to be the favelas most powerful and notorious drug dealer. The lives of the two are intertwined and ironically Rockets dreams of becoming a photographer are realised through his access to life in the favela and his depiction of the crimes perpetrated by Lil Ze and his gang. The films opening and closing sequence include a 360 degree rotational shot of Rocket in the centre of a face off between the gangsters and the police, unsure of where to turn. This is symbolic of the story of the film in that his life can take one of either direction. The narrative is then broken down into a series of vignettes which tell the story of the favela and the central characters, and ultimately which path Rocket decides to take. I argue that this film was imperative in raising awareness of both the existence of as well as the issues within the favelas in Rio de Janeiro, and was one of the first cultural representations to emerge from Brazil to show the darker side of the city and an alternate reality to what is commonly perceived about Rio, that is postcard images of beaches, sunsets and samba. Via this cultural vehicle I argue that it was possible to begin to conduct businesses in the city such as favela tour and favela party due to interest from foreigners in seeing and experiencing a slice of life in the favelas. Which raises the question: Did this film glorify life in the favelas, or did it depict a realistic perspective of reality? How has consciousness raising of the foreign public since affected the inhabitants of these urban spaces and has this effect been positive or negative? I argue that one of the key strengths of the film is realism. The actors are amateurs recruited from the favelas, and the central character Rocket (Alexandre Rodrigues) is from the Cidade de Deus favela itself, which lends authenticity and personal perspective to the characters. The film was shot inside a real favela rather than a film set, taking the viewer directly into the urban space of favela inhabitants. There are several key themes in the film which I will outline below and which raise points of discussion related to the reality of life for favela inhabitants. Alongside the theme of choice, the film raises the questions of what options children who grow up in this environment have for survival. One of the most shocking and criticised features of the film is its portrayal of violence executed by young children in the favela. The characters The Runts are a group of children in the favela aged younger than 8 who view crime and becoming part of a drugs ring the only option for their future. Their youth is emphasised in a scene where they are discussing wanting to take over the most powerful drugs ring in the favela whilst sat in a fenced off cubicle which could be likened to a childrens playpen. This scene culminates in possibly the most memorable and shocking scene in the film, where a child wishing to be initiated into Lil Zes gang is forced to decide between which two children from t he Runts he wants to shoot and kill. We are faced with his indecision coupled with his detachment from the situation he is placed in. One of the children whose life is being decided bursts into tears, and with a close-up shot of his face we are immediately drawn to his extreme fear of the situation he is in, as well as his age, which could not be more than 5 years old. The child character who pulls the trigger. Steak and Frites, is later depicted in the house of the rival gang being questioned as to why he wants to be involved in the gang warfare, and says: â€Å"I smoke, I snort. I have killed and robbed. Im a manâ€Å". At the termination of the film when the Runts have murdered Ze and are discussing how they will take over his business and become the leaders of the favela, their lack of education is highlighted when one of the group asks for the purposes of creating a hit list of those they intend to murder who here knows how to write? and one of them responds a little. Either these children have had no access to education, or more concerned with their survival in the favela consider schooling to be an unnecessary part of life. An important aspect of the manner in which the film is shot, and a characteristic for which the film has received much criticism, is that of detachment. How the viewer feels towards the acts of violence and the characters they are enacted upon is a metaphor for how society in Rio de Janeiro feels towards the favelas- unemotional, detached, separate. That what happens inside the favela is their own business and does not affect those who live outside. The majority of characters in the film are presented in a one dimensional manner and are not depicted displaying emotion. Thus when they are murdered they become another number of the large headcount in the film. Characters are filmed from a distance and the lack of facial close-ups imbues the viewer with this sense of emotional detachment. The one exception to this is portrayal of the gangster Benny, Lil Zes best friend, who decides he wants a life outside of crime and the favela. We view him preventing Ze from shooting those who owe him money, his kindness in letting people out of debts owed to him, his desire to give Rocket a camera to pursue his dreams, and intimate scenes with his girlfriend. When Benny is killed by an addict and thus prevented from leaving the favela we are confronted with the only moment of remorse in the film; this is the only moment where Ze shows emotion, where the camera shots linger at the scene of the death, and where the viewer is in a sense instructed to feel grief for his loss. His death is also paramount in depicting the difficulty of trying to be a good character within or trying to leave the life of the favela. The final key theme of the film I would like to discuss is that of police corruption in Rio, which is clearly depicted in the film as integral to the survival of drug rings and proliferation of access to weapons. At the climax of the film when the two rival druglords Lil Ze and Carrot are captured by police, we witness two important events: Carrot is kept in custody by the police who say he will be a present for the media, whereas Ze is let go and through Rockets camera lens we see that police have been providing him with weapons and drugs in return for money. Favela Rising On August 30th 1993, a group of approximately 30 masked officers from Brazils Policia Militar entered the favela Vigario Geral and using machine guns and hand grenades killed 21 residents, including 8 members of an evangelical Christian family inside their home (NYT 1993). Henceforth known as the Vigario Geral Massacre, this was said to be in revenge for the murder of four policemen at the hands of the Comando Vermelho drug faction several days earlier. Day to day life within favelas is often referred to as wartime in a country officially at peace. Residents are accustomed to daily gun battles and being under the control of the armed drug factions. Police corruption is viewed by many as the prime reason this war is able to take place. As depicted in City of God and Favela Rising, and as told by favela residents under interview, Brazils military police provide the weapons to drug factions, and facilitate the trafficking of drugs in and out of the favelas. A 1993 robbery of an armoured van in Sao Paolo perpetrated by members of Comando Vermelho was found to have been possible using metal piercing bullets from automatic weapons legally available only to the Policia Militar. (NYT 1993). The documentary XXXX shows film footage of police transporting weapons into the favela. Violence within a Political Democracy Brazils military dictatorship ended in 1985 after 20 years of rule, however under the democracy many Brazilians feel less safe. (Caldeira) Since democratic rule, police violence has reached critical levels and events indicate serious degradation of democracy, with high levels of violent crime, police crimes against citizens, and human rights abuses a regular occurrence. Public space in Rio de Janeiro is often characterised by assaults of different types, muggings, and general lawlessness, creating a culture of fear and suspicion (Caldeira). Policies attempting to bring violence under control, such as Operaà §Ãƒ £o Rio in 1994 where military police were sent into the city on a mass scale, are replacing democratic initiatives at state level with assertion of civil order in an episodic manner. Public opinion polls found general support for the operation, with a general attitude that suspected criminals should not be subject to the same human rights conventions as normal citizens (Calde ira). Violence against civilians in favelas should also be considered a failure of democracy to protect their rights. Violence towards favela inhabitants can be seen as the result of a mixture of public attitudes towards criminal activity and middle and upper class attitudes towards favela inhabitants coupled with a police system which effectively serves only the elite. Public attitude plays a large role in the politics of policing and providing assistance (or lack thereof) to favelas. Volunteer worker XXXX in the film Bus 174 spoke of the public opinion polls in relation to the police shooting of 8 street children at Candelaria, where people said the shootings were a positive event, and that â€Å"society needs to be cleaned of this dirtâ€Å". **QUOTE CALDEIRA HOLSTON P699 CRIMINALISATION OF THE POOR*** ***ALSO ALTERNATIVE JUSTICE IN FAVELAS P713*** Development of Brazils Urban Spaces Industrialisation in Brazil began in the early 20th century and has always had significant links with urbanisation, directly influencing the composition and evolvement of the urban network. The primary urban centres of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paolo received the largest amounts of investment during the course of Brazils economic development, resulting in mass amounts of migration from rural areas. The National Census in the year 2000 (IGBE) documented 82% of Brazils 174 million residents live in cities. Furthermore, 80% of the total population live in 25% of the municipalities, indicating strong spatial concentration. (Xavier). Despite being one of the more important economic centres of Brazil (together with Sao Paolo constituting 20% of Brazils GDP (Acioly) ) the metropolitan region of Rio De Janeiro is marked by discernible social and wealth disparities between inhabitants. The needs of low income families unable to afford rent and living in favelas and cheap land on the periphery of the city mean continuous large volumes of transit of inhabitants between the periphery and the centre, where they have access to employment and services, creating severe socio-spatial stratification at the metropolitan level. In the 1990s, confronted with increasing social tensions and the recession of the entire country, favelas and low rent land became the focus of violence, with drug trafficking establishing a power parallel to official local controls, to the detriment of municipal regulations and law. The residents associations (AMs) which were very active in the 1980s fell under continuous intimidation and fear, and were often physically in the centre of shoot-outs between gangs and police. History of Favelas in Rio The Portuguese founded Rio de Janeiro in 1565 and by the end of the 16th century the hilled regions of the city were already substantially populated. Swamplands surrounding the hills were drained and soon also attracted settlers. Until the late 18th century the primary crop of the economy was sugarcane grown on the peripheries of Rio, which greatly influenced the spatial structure of the city. (Xavier). Following the relocation of the Portuguese Royal family to Rio in 1808 and the naming of Rio as the capital of Brazil, the population increased 25%, 50% of whom were slaves. (Xavier). There was a need for construction of housing for the higher income migrants and Portuguese nobility, with houses built closer to the periphery of the city, shaping the beginning of the patterns of segregation in Rio as rich and poor lived separately and in greatly different standards of housing yet within the same city centre. In 1888 slavery was abolished and freed workers from the coffee plantations migrated in large numbers to Rio. The word favela originated in the first low income residence to be constructed in the city centre, named Morro da Providà ªncia and later â€Å"Morro da Favelaâ€Å" by residents who were primarily ex soldiers and ex-slaves whom were not capable of integration into the citys economy. (Xavier). Government initiatives to modernise Rio led to large low income residential areas including those on hillsides being demolished, displacing predominantly the citys poor and forcing them further to the peripheries to resettle. By definition a favela is a squatter settlement, usually self-built by its inhabitants illegally on land lacking any infrastructure and without any urban plan for its development. The last official estimate for the number of favelas in Rio de Janeiro was 605 (PCRJ, IPP) but unofficial estimates read that 100 more have arisen since then. The typical location of favela construction is hillside areas, though in the 21st century they have increasingly been built in swampy land areas such as near the higher income Barra de Tijuca expansion zone. (Xavier 8) Rios first urban plan was developed in the late 1920s, named Plan Agache, following a segregated functionalist principle to organise the city (Xavier). In this plan the southern beachside areas of Ipanema, Leblon and Gavea were reserved for the upper classes, while the working classes were relegated to the suburbs, and the first plans for total eradication of the favelas were made. This was the first official document to describe favelas as a problem which must be eradicated; they were viewed as an epidemic which was blighting the most expensive land in Rio. As a result of this first urban plan dividing lower, middle and upper classes into distinct sections of the city, the only option left for the poor who did not fit these categories was to move into squatter settlements, either on the city outskirts or in dangerous and therefore undesirable locations such as steep hillsides. Alongside the explosive population growth and industrialisation of the following decades, Rios transport an d housing systems were unable to cope with the rise in migrants to the city, leading to the increasing spread of favelas into the city centre into environmentally fragile areas such as the hillsides separating the upper class suburbs. Living conditions in Rio display exceptionally poor distribution, demonstrated by the discrepancies in living conditions between the rich and the poor. There is a high level of socio-spatial inequality, with income being concentrated in a miniscule proportion of the population; the poorest 50% of Rios population earn only 13% of its income, while 12% of income is earned by the richest 1%. (IPEA). The social inequality prevalent in Rio de Janeiro is not applicable only to the physical make-up of the city but in the social configuration. Those located in the periphery in a physical sense are not only spatially remote; even when located in the centre of the city nest to a high income suburb, the favelas are in contrast with the â€Å"formal cityâ€Å". (Xavier). This inequality resonates in the difficult quotidianity of life for favela residents, who constitute 17% of Rios 5.8 million residents according to the 2000 census (IGBE). Segregation Telles (1995) in his study of the structural sources of socioeconomic segregation in Brazilian metropolitan areas concludes that the extent of urbanisation and predominantly population size is the key to understanding socioeconomic spatial inequalities in Brazil, and explains the majority of variations in segregation between different metropolitan areas. In dividing up income and race groups in Rio de Janeiro based on data from the 1980 census of Brazil it can be clearly seen that there is the smallest proportion of non-white households in the largest income group, and this percentage grows proportionately as the income levels are lowered. Due to issues of race and class being strongly correlated in Brazil, segregation (found to be largest between Rios lower and middle classes) becomes racialised. Thus racial segregation is partially ascertained by the higher numbers of non-whites in poorer socio-economic groups. However in the specific case of Rio, Telles finds class identities to b e stronger than racial identities, and this is explained by Rios particular spatial factors, for example the idiosyncratic mountainous landscape which played a part in the formation of Rios favelas. Bibliography Xavier, Helia Nacif Magalhaes, Fernanda (2003) Urban Slums Report: The Case of Rio de Janeiro Understanding Slums: Case Studies for the Global Report on Human Settlements UN IPEA/PCRJ/PNUD (2000), Relatà ³rio de Desenvolvimento Urbano A distribuià §Ãƒ £o de renda na cidade do Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro, RJ Prefeitura da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro PCRJ, IPP (2000) Anuà ¡rio Estatà ­stico da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro 1998, Instituto Pereira Passos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ Website: News Articles Brooke, James: 21 Shot dead in Rio Slum; Policemen are Suspected New York Times Section A p3 Column 1 August 30 1993

Saturday, July 20, 2019

The Biological Basis of Language Development Essay -- Health Medicine

The Biological Basis of Language Development "The principles and rules of grammar are the means by which the forms of language are made to correspond with the universal froms of thought....The structures of every sentence is a lesson in logic." BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF LANGUAGE "[H]uman knowledge is organized de facto by linguistic competence through language performance, and our exploration of reality is always mediated by language" (Danchin 29). Most higher vertebrates possess ‘intuitive knowledge’ which occurs as the result of slow evolution of species. However, the ability to create knowledge through language is unique to humans. According to Benjamin Whorf, "language†¦. is not merely a reproducing instrument from voicing ideas but rather is itself the shaper of ideas†¦. We dissect nature along lines laid down by language" (Joseph 249). In addition, the development and acquisition of language seems to be related to "complex sequential processing, and the ability to form concepts and to classify a single stimulus in a multiple manner" (Joseph 178). Antione Danchin suggests that the knowledge we create through language allows us distinguish ourselves from the rest of the world to produce models of reality, which become more and more adequate due to the "self-referent loop" which enables us to understand ourselves as objects under study. This "path from subject to object," which is common to all humans, Danchin claims, suggests the existence of a universal feature of language (29). Biological foundation of language may contribute significantly to such universality. The issue here is not whether language is innate, for, clearly, language must be learned. Nor is the issue whether the aptitude for learning a la... ...guage. Vol 58(2) 265-326, Jun 1997.    Modgil, Sohan and Celia Modgil. Noam Chomsky: Consensus and Controversy. New York: The Falmer Press, 1987. Persson, Inga-Britt. Connectionism, language production and adult aphasia: elaboration of a connectionist framework for lexical processing and a hypothesis of agrammatic aphasia. Helsinki, Finland: Societas Scientiarum Fennica, 1995. Schachter, Jacquelyn. Some semantic prerequisites for a model of language. Brain & Language. Vol 3(2) 292-304, Apr 1976. Schnitzer, Marc L. Toward a neurolinguistic theory of language. Brain & Language. Vol 6(3) 342-361, Nov 1978.    Skinner, B. F. Verbal behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1970. Vocate, Donna R. The Theory of A.R. Luria: Functions of Spoken Language in the Development of Higher Mental Process. Hillsdale[NJ]: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1987.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Essay --

Q1: Analysis of the book industry prior to the Internet Consolidation was the major theme in the book publishing industry in the early to mid 1990s; as the result, the industry appeared to be an oligopoly, dominated by only a few names such as Random House, Simon & Schuster, Harper Collins, Pearson and McGraw Hill. †¢ Rivalry: high o With the domination of only a few players in the book publishing industry mentioned above, the competition among these publishers was quite fierce. Each of them always attempted to grab more market shares from other competitors to enhance profits and market power. o Major book publishers in most cases offered similar editing and marketing expertise, while the resources for them to generate revenues--the right to publish excellent works and the relationships with promising authors--were scarce. Due to the lack of major differentiators for publishers, the results of resources allocation often depended on the prices they bided on the copyrights. The bidding process could become intense and therefore drove up the price for new books to millions of dollars. †¢ Threat of new entrants: low o To start a new book publishing business, the capital requirement for the upfront payment to offices, equipment and staff would be high, especially during the pre-Internet time in 1990s, in which editing and publishing machineries such as computers and printers were pricy. o Distribution channels were key to the survival of a book publisher. Existing major players had long established stable relationships with book chains and super stores across the country, namely with huge retailers like Barnes & Noble and Borders. New comers in the book publishing industry could hardly obtain similar relationships with these dominatin... ...nline retailing platform that sells both physical books and eBooks, in order to withhold the impact of powerful online retailers like Amazon. Some publishers have already done so. In 2001, Random House, Penguin Putnam, Harper Collins, and Simon and Schuster agreed to skip online retailers and sell contents directly through †¢ Work closely with Universities and other educational institutions, providing exclusive contents to faculties and students. The proprietary relationships with schools can lock-in a large group of loyal customers. †¢ Develop security technologies against pirating and illegal downloading so that publishers' lawful benefits will not be lost. †¢ Build good relationships with popular authors, solicit more exclusive contracts to produce, promote and distribute their works through publishers' own channels in order to garner the strong demands.

Dells Successful Use of the Internet as a Selling Channel Essay

Dell's Successful Use of the Internet as a Selling Channel Dell are currently the worlds number one PC supplier, a position in the market they took from Compaq in April 2001. In short, the company’s success story is mainly down to their innovative direct business model, which pays particular attention to the selling process where Dell completely bypasses all intermediaries and/or middlemen. This is because Michael Dell believed they add little if no value to the end product, instead just gaining a considerable mark-up for selling the product. Hence, they became the first PC manufacturer to completely cut out retailers and instead sold customised computers directly to customers based on their exact specifications. This selling process began over the telephone and via catalogues but in 1996 Dell embarked on Internet based selling on their official website,, providing customers the opportunity to buy desktops, notebooks and servers directly from them. In order to power online commerce successfully for any business, the basic technology required is the installation of servers and data-storage systems. The website runs on industry standard Dell PowerEdge servers. These powerful servers are backed up by Dell/EMC Fibre Channel storage. Dell is therefore equipped with backup strategies in case any problems with the servers or software occur and are experienced. This is crucial, as users may begin to view this distribution channel as unreliable if breakdowns are recurrent and could detract them from not only buying from but from anything from the company. According to company internal metrics, is one of the most responsive web sites on the Internet, with an average download time of 1 second for a page. That briefly explains the technology used to power the website however customers can access it simply via an Internet browser, the most popular being Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Explorer. Dell’s direct business model (can be seen on the page three) may be simple in theory however it is very complicated executing it in reality. Building PC’s to order means that they must have the parts and components on hand to build a wide range of possible specifications over a short period of time (to ensure minimum time between order and manufacture). To complete these orders quickly, Dell must have first-rate manufacturing and ... ...ffective they are. As mentioned, customer service has also improved from an already high standard even further. Dell has created many services online that enables the customer to see the whole purchasing process clearly once they have made an order. It gives the customer the ability to track the progress of their order as it is produced and delivered, providing them with constant feedback of delivery dates and product information. This 24-hour customer service and fast response time helps Dell build a strong relationship with customers. References ---------- The key references handed in earlier referred to the two links below: - uk&l=en&s=corp - en/2003/2003_10_20_rr_002?c=us&l=en&s=corp Further websites were found with useful detail on Dell’s direct selling model: - - ID=14674 - c=us&l=en&s=gen&~ck=lf&~section=006

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Pakistan Wetland Program

THE PAKISTAN WETLANDS PROGRAMME The Ministry of Environment's Pakistan Wetlands Programme DurationJuly 2005- June 2012 StatusOngoing BudgetUSD 3. 6 million Project deliveryUSD 2. 7 million Project delivery (2010) USD 0. 51 million LocationCountrywide Donor Contribution Royal Netherlands Embassy (RNE): USD 4,034,000 Global Environment Facility (GEF): USD 2,253, 000 Federal Government: Ministry of Environment Other: World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF-P) Background:The Pakistan Wetlands Programme (PWP) aims to promote the sustainable conservation of freshwater and marine wetlands and their associated globally important biodiversity in Pakistan. The programme strategy is based on two sub-sets of objectives. The first will provide the required policy, institutional, technical and financial framework and generate positive public support essential for the mainstreaming of wetlands conservation. The second involves the design and implementation of Sustainable, participatory management plans for four independent Demonstration Sites, each chosen to be representative of a broad eco-region in Pakistan.It includes specific mechanisms to secure financial sustainability and enhanced replication and proliferation of viable wetlands management interventions in a nation-wide, on-going wetlands conservation initiative. Despite the generally arid nature of Pakistan's climate, the region supports an estimated 780,000 ha of wetlands that cover 9. 7% of the total surface area of the country. In excess of 225 significant wetlands sites are on record in the prototype Pakistan Wetlands GIS Database developed during the PDF (B) Phase of this Project.Nineteen of these have been internationally recognised by the Ramsar Convention Bureau as being of global importance. The diverse assortment of natural freshwater and marine wetlands that occur within Pakistan support unique combinations of biodiversity. The same resource, however, also sustains an estimated 144 million permanent human resid ents and 3-4 million displaced persons from adjacent countries. The wetlands of the region are, therefore, generally degrading under a broad spectrum of anthropogenic threats that are mainly rooted in poverty but exacerbated by lack of knowledge and mismanagement.Global Significance Pakistan's permanent and ephemeral wetlands are globally significant in two ways; i) In terms of the intrinsic value of their indigenous biodiversity, ii) As an acute example of the poverty/subsistence-use nexus that constitutes one of the most fundamental threats to biodiversity worldwide. The high global significance of Pakistan's wetlands is attributable to the diversity of species that they support. In all, eighteen threatened species of wetlands dependent mammals are found in the country including the endemic Punjab Urial (Ovis vignei punjabiensis) and Indus River Dolphin (Plantanista minor).Further, twenty threatened bird species are supported by Pakistan's wetlands in addition to twelve reptiles a nd two endemic species of amphibians. Pakistan's wetlands also support between 191-198 indigenous freshwater fish species, including fifteen endemics and a total of 788 marine and estuarine fish species. The high altitude wetlands, characterised by sites such as Karumbar Lake, situated at an elevation of 4, 150m, and Saucher Lake, at 4,250m on the Deosai Plains, represent a relatively unique category of alpine wetlands that is confined to the Himalaya, Hindukush and Karakoram mountain cordilleras.Objectives To promote the sustainable conservation of freshwater and marine wetlands and their associated globally important biodiversity in Pakistan. Key Achievements i)Implementation on the recommendations of the previous Mid-Term Review underway. ii)Draft Exit Strategy for Pakistan Wetlands Program prepared. iii)Institutional setup established under the program with management of Pakistan’s wetlands after completion of the project in 2012. iv)Field assessments completed and GIS mo dels at the federal and provincial levels operational.GIS database being used as a decision making tool for the management of selected wetlands in four sites. v)Overall information of 225 wetlands of Pakistan available in GIS database. vi)National Wetlands Policy approved. vii)Planned trainings completed. 3000 participants from communities, Govt. institutions and academia benefited from these trainings. The project and government personnel have benefited from study abroad component of this programme. iii)A number of customized materials such as a brochure on Uchhali Complex, awareness raising posters in Urdu and English for World Wetlands Day; tree plantation and hunting ethics flyers and promos; documentaries on Water Fowl In Pakistan; Broghil and on Balochistan Coast were produced and disseminated nation-wide. This has led to recognition of three additional wetlands sites under the Global Convention on Wetlands. ix)The implementation of conservation plans at the four wetlands site s in process in collaboration with local village communities. Main Donors The main donors are Royal Netherland Embassy (RNE),UNDP Pakistan, Global Environment Facility (GEF), Pakistan Poverty Alleviation Fund (PPAF), EU and WWF International . Aims The programme aims at the creation of an enabling environment at the national level through capacity-building and training, awareness raising, communication and environmental assessments; developing replicable models in the four wetlands eco-regions of the country including the Makran Coastal Wetlands Complex (MCWC), Central Indus Wetlands Complex (CIWC), Salt Range Wetlands Complex (SRWC) and Northern Alpine Wetlands Complex (NAWC). Coverage areaDespite the generally arid nature of Pakistan's climate, the region supports an estimated 780,000 ha of wetlands that cover 9. 7% of the total surface area of the country. In excess of 225 significant wetlands sites are on record in the prototype Pakistan Wetlands GIS Database developed during th e PDF (B) Phase of this Project. Nineteen of these have been internationally recognized by the Ramsar Convention Bureau as being of global importance. The diverse assortment of natural freshwater and marine wetlands that occur within Pakistan support unique combinations of biodiversity.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

A comparison study of teacher self-efficiency beliefs of Korean and Native teachers of English

Communication is one factor in military man relations that could non be removed from existing within the confederation of military individualnel. This is chiefly beca implement of the fact that it is something that keeps the relationship of mountain from all over the world inherent in creating one fussy community.Communication is so one of the oldest procedures of humans in marrying with all(prenominal) other. Within the ancient years, plurality utilise sounds to be able to connect to from each one other. Later on, the sounds developed into words, words into phrases and now, pack atomic number 18 already capable of expressing themselves by dint of speaking divers(prenominal) languages.This fact leads to the substantiation that one of the most important take of people is to communicate. It is the affairicular factor that separates humans from other creations, since they ar able to connect to others with the phthisis of words, or carcass language, they ha ve the means by which they are able to express their innermost thoughts through conversation their minds to others.Larry Alan Nadig further describes communication in the following mannerExpressing our wants, feelings, thoughts and opinions uninfectedly and efficaciously is only half of the communication summons gather uped for interpersonal effectiveness. The other half is audience and understanding what others communicate to us. When a person decides to communicate with another person, he/she does so to fulfill a need.The person wants something, feels discomfort, and/or has feelings or thoughts about something. In deciding to communicate, the person selects the method or economy which he/she believes will effectively deliver the message to the other person. The code used to send the message raft be either vocal or nonverbal.When the other person receives the coded message, they go through the process of decoding or translation it into understanding and meaning. Effect ive communication exists amongst two people when the receiver interprets and understands the vectors message in the kindred course the sender intended it. (TEL, 2001, Internet)However, through the years, the development of the artistic and strategic way of using communication as a link towards other people has been continuously improving.Now, at the brink of globalization, more(prenominal) and more people are having the capability of connecting to others of different races from their own through communication, yet they are lacking the skills of doing so. How then are humans supposed to face this particular contest of social progress? The hold up of Rudolph and Kathleen Verderber discusses of the quartet major ways by which the human society could gain the right skills to communicate.The quadruplet keys of Successful Communication A Summary of Chapters 1-4According to the Verderbers, prospering speech communication with others could only be attained through constant physi cal exercise. This practice through does not only inquire ones own apparent motion of attaining the skills of rightful speech. In a neat discussion within the four-spot chapters of their arrest, Kathleen and Rudolph gave the four basic steps by which people could gain good and considerably possible communication skills.(1) Foundations of Communication, the first 100 pagesThis division includes some topics such as verbal and nonverbal communication, plus the perception of self and others. The said topic primarily taper on the ability of the person to use all the possible ways to be able to connect with others in the society, qualification a certain stress on the fact that people do need to communicate with others because it is innate in them to do so. Using this as the main mental hospital of learning the skills for speech is surely a fine start for someone wanting(p) to gain the rightful knowledge take to converse with others.(2) Interpersonal Communication, the next o ne hundred ten pagesThis part of the book includes several topics ranging from audition and job interviews to communicating in relationships. most likely, the focus of this part is to show the ref how communication skills are practically employ in real life. The aim of the authors is primarily to encourage the readers to believe the fact that they cannot do away with the fact that communication is a regular part of human supporting and they could not do away with it.(3) pigeonholing Communication, ranging at only 20 pagesThis particular section tells the reader how to participate in groups as well as to how to prevail leadership within groups through the use of fine communicating skills on the part of the one creating the conversation.(4) Public Speaking, the last clx pagesThe Final chapter discusses on how to pick a topic, research it, adapting to an audience. It also gives a clear description on the differences between informative vs. persuasive speaking. This part mainly fo cuses on the capability of the readers to develop their skills in expressing themselves in front of a crowd as they hold their attention through the discussions that they are addressing to them.Through the discussion of the four major chapters of the book Communicate, it could be mention that the authors of the book wanted to stress on the grandness of an individuals ability in expressing himself whether personally or publicly. The constant information of the fact that people are and so capable and are responsible of communicating themselves with others have particularly made this recital material a must read.It could not be denied that through the discussions that the authors presented, the importance of audience is given ample focus. The authors even noted Listening is one part of communication that cannot be denied of attention there is certainly a non-existent communication if the art of listening is not applied by the parties that are having a particular conversation. (Verd erber, 25)

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Ranbaxy Case Project Essay

Ranbaxy Case Project Essay

Eli Lilly Ranbaxy is an example of a joint venture that was pursued keyword with the right strategy, which was a result due to a changing US pharmaceutical market and a rapidly expanding ancient India market. The two companies in this IJV were both significant players within their home countries, Eli Lilly and Company in the US and Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited extract from India. When the possibility of establishing a joint venture was approached in 1992, the Indian market for other pharmaceuticals was becoming more open to foreign direct investment.Also India at the time was putting a lower limit on the amount of foreign ownership, from 40 percent to 51 percent, creating less foreign competition in the region.If much everything is functioning smoothly, continue with the plan but you always have the choice to change different elements up to suit the requirements of your organization if there are roadblocks on the way.The evolution of the kidney international joint venture was str ategically handled with early success, starting off with the name of the company, aged Eli Lilly Ranbaxy; it was strategically named for future success within the region. Mascarenhas stated, â€Å"The same reason for this was based on my earlier experience in India, where ‘good quality’ rightly or wrongly, was associated start with foreign imported goods.Eli Lilly Ranbaxy sounded foreign enough! † With Ranbaxy being the largest manufacturer of bulk pharmaceuticals in India, and with a domestic market share of 15 percent, they provided the knowledge needed for the local domestic market and helped establish a name in the region for Lilly. Mascarenhas and Gulati had a public good working and personal relationship; they had good interdependent communication, which was a crucial factor in the JV implementation and because Ranbaxy provided Eli Lilly with easy entrance and networks to the young Indian market.Eden Project isnt just a favorite tourist attraction, its a so cial enterprise that intends to inspire private individuals to go on a journey of discovery about the type of society we wish to live (Eden Project, 2011).

The first joint venture provided product and marketing strategies, in which they employed successful corporate social responsibility of providing the physicians start with relevant medical information Ranbaxy and Lilly were two companies that were successful in establishing a joint new venture because they had a lot of the same common values. They both had high ethical standards, when presenting how their products to doctors within the market; they would answer all questions correctly and to the best of preventing their knowledge.Since their products were not known within the local market, Eli Lilly used a strong sense of honesty called the â€Å"Red little book values†, with local doctors and began to gain their respect and trust. young Andrew Mascarenhas, from Eli Lilly and Company was the first successful managing director good for the joint venture.Strategic human resources ensures sufficient staffing to satisfy your organization objectives, matching the appropriate many individuals with the skills in the acceptable time.Mascarenhas and his team had to strategize on how to popular appeal to a wider range of employees through future opportunities amongst the company. Eli Lilly Ranbaxy invested in a military training program. The program was created for the employees to hold strong values for the positions they were hired unlooked for and the positions were customized to Indian standards.Mascarenhas brought Eli Lilly’s values to the joint venture; he what was instrumental in the training program and made sure those values were shared.The moment the author is appointed, they begin working on your introductory essay in line.

Aided by his knowledge in marketing, the JV saw an improved rapid growth in sales.Rajiv Gulati was shortly promoted after Chris Shaw. Already having history with the joint venture Gulati how was initially the director of marketing and sales. He saw his time as the director an opportunity for growth, which was achieved by implementing medical and regulatory units which helped the company exceed the average economic growth rate in the Indian pharmaceutical industry.Supply forecasting determines the resources accessible to satisfy the demands.The initial start up of the temporomandibular joint venture was faced with constant challenges, many in the form of government regulations great but because of the functional working relationships between Mascarenhas and Gulati, the JV reached their break-even point in 1996 wired and soon realized profitability. With the growth of the pharmaceutical market the company also went through significant changes to keep up with innovations.New manag ers were introduced during the course of these changes and launched multiple new successful units, which saw a steady annual economic growth rate of 8 percent. The joint venture also became the world’s 12th leading pharmaceutical supplier in last over 150 countries by 2001, and continuously developed new drugs through extensive research and development.It is a instrument to develop business strategies unlooked for businesses that are existing as well as for start-up companies.

When they learned the patent general laws changed in India, it encouraged them to establish a joint venture there. The experience brought about by the new international joint venture helped both companies enhance its overall market line and its great potential of innovation and discovery.Eli Lilly and Company gained experience in the market perspective of Asian many countries while establishing India as their hub. Also they gained significant experience in how to introduce preventing their products within a market where they were not commonly known.Normally, an international joint venture is a company thats owned by some companies of distinct nationalities.The main reason for the they separation, is that each company started to focus on different objectives when the industry started to grow, Ranbaxy focusing on generics and Lilly focusing on research and development. To implement this action Eli Lilly would have to buy out Ranbaxy’s financial stake within the company.Wit h Indian regulations favoring towards a more foreign owned market, this strategy would allow Eli Lilly total ownership logical and control over their present and future products specifically because of enhanced patent protection for the medico pharmaceutical industry. Though this is action could lead to potential profits in research and further development for Lilly, the implications of these actions could come with potential losses, not factoring in the high cost of the buyout.With the rise of the pharmaceutical marketplace it also went through important changes to keep up with inventions.

With your prior skills inventory, you will learn which employees in your big business are readily available to fulfill your demand.Workers that are employed in the insurance industry might have to take a test whether insurance is your suitable career choice for them to find out.Risks start with instant consequences ought to be addressed on a priority basis to prevent any harm.Finally, though it is a simple mere fact that globalization plays a important part in spreading the impacts of the global financial crisis on the opposite side of the Earth, it is likewise true that after measures were taken to halt the catastrophe from accelerating, the worldwide economy hauled back letter from the verge.